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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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TPO-12- Transition to Sound in Film

The shift from silent to sound film at the end of the 1920s marks, so far, the most important transformation in motion picture history. Despite all the highly visible technological developments in theatrical and home delivery of the moving image that have occurred over the decades since then, no single innovation has come close to being regarded as a similar kind of watershed. In nearly every language, however the words are phrased, the most basic division in cinema history lies between films that are mute and films that speak.

Yet this most fundamental standard of historical periodization conceals a host of paradoxes. Nearly every movie theater, however modest, had a piano or organ to provide musical accompaniment to silent pictures. In many instances, spectators in the era before recorded sound experienced elaborate aural presentations alongside movies' visual images, from the Japanese benshi (narrators) crafting multivoiced dialogue narratives to original musical compositions performed by symphony-size orchestras in Europe and the United States. In Berlin, for the premiere performance outside the Soviet Union of The Battleship Potemkin, film director Sergei Eisenstein worked with Austrian composer Edmund Meisel (1874-1930) on a musical score matching sound to image; the Berlin screenings with live music helped to bring the film its wide international fame.

Beyond that, the triumph of recorded sound has overshadowed the rich diversity of technological and aesthetic experiments with the visual image that were going forward simultaneously in the 1920s. New color processes, larger or differently shaped screen sizes, multiple-screen projections, even television, were among the developments invented or tried out during the period, sometimes with startling success. The high costs of converting to sound and the early limitations of sound technology were among the factors that suppressed innovations or retarded advancement in these other areas. The introduction of new screen formats was put off for a quarter century, and color, though utilized over the next two decades for special productions, also did not become a norm until the 1950s.

Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the 1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.

These forces were the rapidly expanding electronics and telecommunications companies that were developing and linking telephone and wireless technologies in the 1920s. In the United States, they included such firms as American Telephone and Telegraph, General Electric, and Westinghouse. They were interested in all forms of sound technology and all potential avenues for commercial exploitation. Their competition and collaboration were creating the broadcasting industry in the United States, beginning with the introduction of commercial radio programming in the early 1920s. With financial assets considerably greater than those in the motion picture industry, and perhaps a wider vision of the relationships among entertainment and communications media, they revitalized research into recording sound for motion pictures.

In 1929 the United States motion picture industry released more than 300 sound films—a rough figure, since a number were silent films with music tracks, or films prepared in dual versions, to take account of the many cinemas not yet wired for sound. At the production level, in the United States the conversion was virtually complete by 1930. In Europe it took a little longer, mainly because there were more small producers for whom the costs of sound were prohibitive, and in other parts of the world problems with rights or access to equipment delayed the shift to sound production for a few more years (though cinemas in major cities may have been wired in order to play foreign sound films). The triumph of sound cinema was swift, complete, and enormously popular.

到20世纪20年代末,从无声到有声电影的转变标志着迄今为止电影史上最重要的转变。尽管从那以后的几十年里,在动画形象的戏剧和家庭传递方面,所有的高度显着的技术发展,没有一个单一的创新已经接近被认为是一个类似的分水岭。在几乎所有的语言中,无论言辞是什么,电影史上最基本的分工就在于静音的电影和说话的电影之间。

 

然而这个历史分期的最基本的标准隐藏了许多矛盾。几乎每个电影院都有一台钢琴或风琴,为无声的照片提供音乐伴奏。在许多情况下,在录制声音之前的观众与电影的视觉图像一起经历了精心的听觉呈现,从由日本的benshi(叙述者)制作多元对话叙事到由欧洲和美国交响乐团演奏的原创音乐作品。在柏林电影导演谢尔盖·爱森斯坦(Sergei Eisenstein)在苏联境外的首映式上与奥地利作曲家埃德蒙·迈塞尔(Edmund Meisel,1874-1930)合作,以音乐形象匹配声音的形象;柏林的现场音乐放映让这部电影在国际上广为人知。

 

除此之外,录音的胜利已经掩盖了20世纪20年代同时进行的视觉形象的技术和美学实验的丰富多样性。新的色彩处理,更大或不同形状的屏幕尺寸,多屏幕投影,甚至电视,都是在这个时期发明或试用的发展,有时会惊人的成功。转换为音响的高昂成本以及音响技术的早期局限是抑制其他领域创新或推进进步的因素之一。新屏幕格式的推出已经推迟了二十五年,虽然在未来的二十年中用于特殊制作的彩色,但直到二十世纪五十年代才成为一种标准。

 

虽然可能很难从后来的角度来想象,但是20世纪20年代的批判性意见应变预示着声音电影将成为一种技术上的新奇,很快就会消失,就像以前的许多尝试一样,早在第一世界之前战争,用录制的声音链接图像。这些评论家们正在作出一个共同的假设,即先前的努力(同步不佳,声音放大弱,录音脆弱)的技术不足,总会再次出现。可以肯定的是,他们对20世纪20年代声音实验的技术缺陷的评价并没有离谱,但忽视了在电影领域重要的新力量,从某种意义上说, 。

 

这些力量是20世纪20年代正在发展和连接电话和无线技术的迅速发展的电子和电信公司。在美国,他们包括美国电话电报公司,通用电气公司和西屋公司。他们对所有形式的音响技术和商业开发的所有潜在途径都感兴趣。他们的竞争和合作正在创造美国的广播业,从20世纪20年代初引入商业广播节目开始。由于金融资产远远高于电影行业,也许对娱乐和传播媒体之间的关系有了更广泛的认识,他们重新开始研究录制电影声音。

 

1929年,美国电影业发布了300多部声音电影,这是一个粗略的数字,因为有一些电影是音乐的无声电影,或者是以双重版本制作的电影,以便考虑到许多还没有连接声音的电影院。在生产方面,美国的转换在1930年基本完成。在欧洲花费了一些时间,主要是因为有更多的小型生产者,声音成本过高,在世界其他地方出现问题权利或设备的使用推迟了几年的转变(尽管主要城市的电影院可能已经连线播放国外声音电影)。声音电影的胜利是迅速,完整和极受欢迎的。


中文翻译

The word “regarded” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • no single innovation has come close to being regarded as a similar kind of watershed. A analyzed B considered C altered D criticized regarded
正确答案: B

网友解析

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    十三个  发表于 2018-10-21 21:50:07

    regard尊重,视为,关心,所以B的consider视为正确。本句说尽管有了很多东西,但没有像watershed的。前面的innovation和后面的watershed是一类词,所以alter和criticize不对,A的analyze分析完全不靠谱

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    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-08 17:17:55

    词汇题
    解析:regard视为,与B近

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