关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

TPO20托福阅读Passage2 Early settlements in southwest Asia文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】

2019-02-20 09:29:58 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:3284

TPO20托福阅读Passage2 Early settlements in southwest Asia文本+题目原文+答案解析


 Early settlements in southwest Asia

The universal global warming at the end of the ice age had dramatic effects on temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Ice sheets retreated and sea level rose.■ The climatic changes in southwestern Asia were more subtle, in that they involved shifts in mountain snow lines, rainfall patterns, and vegetation cover. ■However, these same cycles of change and had momentous impacts on the sparse human populations of the region.■ At the end of the Ice Age, no more than a few thousand foragers lived along the eastern Mediterranean coast, in the Jordan and Euphrates valleys. Within 2,000years, the human population of the region numbered in the tens of thousands, all as a result of village life and farming.■ Thanks to new environmental and archaeological discoveries, we now know something about this remarkable change in local life.

Pollen samples from freshwater lakes in Sria and elsewhere tell us forest cover expanded rapidly at the end of the Ice Age, for the southwestern Asian climate was still cooler and considerably wetter than today. Many areas were richer in animal and plant species than they are now, making them highly favorable for human occupation. About 9000 B.C., most human settlements lay in the area along the Mediterranean coast and in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and their foothills. Some local areas, like the Jordan River valley, the middle Euphrates valley, and some Zagros valleys, were more densely populated than elsewhere. Here more sedentary and more complex societies flourished. These people exploited the landscape intensively, foraging on hill slopes for wild cereal grasses and nuts, while hunting gazelle and other game on grassy lowlands and in river valleys. Their settlements contain exotic objects such as seashells, stone bowls, and artifacts made of obsidian (volcanic glass), all traded from afar. This considerable volume of intercommunity exchange brought a degree of social complexity in its wake.

Thanks to extremely fine-grained excavation and extensive use of flotation methods (through which seeds are recovered from soil samples), we know a great deal about the foraging practices of the inhabitants of Abu Hureyra in Syria’s Euphrates valley. Abu Hureyra was founded about 9500B.C., a small village settlement of cramped pit dwellings (houses dug partially in the soil) with reed roofs supported by wooden uprights. For the next 1,500 years, its inhabitants enjoyed a somewhat warmer and damper climate than today, living in a well-wooded steppe area where wild cereal grasses were abundant. They subsisted off spring migrations of Persian gazelles from the south. With such a favorable location, about 300 to 400 people lived in a sizable, permanent settlement. They were no longer a series of small bands but lived in a large community with more elaborate social organization, probably grouped into clans of people of common descent.

The flotation samples from the excavations allowed botanists to study shifts in plant-collection habits as if they were looking through a telescope at a changing landscape. Hundreds of tiny plant remains show how the inhabitants exploited nut harvests in nearby pistachio and oak forests. However, as the climate dried up, the forests retreated from the vicinity of the settlement. The inhabitants turned to wild cereal grasses instead, collecting them by the thousands, while the percentage of nuts in the diet fell. By 8200B.C., drought conditions were so severe that the people abandoned their long-established settlement, perhaps dispersing into smaller camps.

Five centuries later, about 7700B.C., a new village rose on the mound. At first the inhabitants still hunted gazelle intensively. Then, about 7000 B.C., within the space of a few generations, the switched abruptly to herding domesticated goats and sheep and to growing einkorn, pulses, and other cereal grasses. Abu Hureyra grew rapidly until it covered nearly 30 acres. It was a close-knit community of rectangular, one-story mud-brick houses, joined by narrow lanes an courtyards, finally abandoned about 5000 B.C.. Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as ‘Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding)’ testify to earl herding of domestic stock.


TPO20 托福阅读 Passage2 Early settlements in southwest Asia 题目


Question 1 of 14: The word “momentous” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Numerous

B. Regular

C. Very important

D. Very positive


Question 2 of 14: Major climatic changes occurred by the end of the Ice Age in all of the following geographic areas EXCEPT

A. temperate regions of Asia

B. southwestern Asia

C. North America

D. Europe


Question 3 of 14: The phrase “this remarkable change” in the passage refers to

A. warming at the end of the Ice Age

B. shifts in mountain snow lines

C. the movement of people from farms to villages

D. a dramatic increase in the population


Question 4 of 14: The word ‘exploited’ in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. explored

B. utilized

C. inhabited

D. improved


Question 5 of 14: Why does the author mention “seashells, stone bowls, and artifacts made of obsidian”?

A. to give examples of objects obtained through trade with other societies.

B. to illustrate the kinds of objects that are preserved in a cool climate

C. to provide evidence that the organization of work was specialized

D. to give examples of the artistic ability of local populations.


Question 6 of 14: The word “cramped” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. primitive

B. secure

C. extended

D. confined


Question 7 of 14Paragraph 3 suggests which of the following about the settlement of Abu Hureyra?

A. The settlement was inhabited by small groups of people from nearby areas.

B. Small bands of people migrated in and out of the settlement.

C. The location of the settlement made permanent development difficult.

D. The easy availability of food led to the growth of the settlement.


Question 8 of 14:  The word “shifts” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Effects

B. Similarities

C. Changes

D. Exceptions


Question 9 of 14:  Paragraph 4 suggests that the people of Abu Hureyra abandoned their long-established settlement because

A. The inhabitants had cleared all the trees from the forests

B. Wild cereal grasses took over pistachio and oak forests

C. People wanted to explore new areas

D. Lack of rain caused food shortages


Question10 of 14:  According to paragraph 5, after 7000B.C. the settlement of Abu Hureyra differed from earlier settlements at that location in all of the following EXCEPT

A. The domestication of animals

B. The intensive hunting of gazelle

C. The size of the settlement

D. The design of the dwellings


Question11 of 14: The word ”abruptly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Informally

B. Briefly

C. Suddenly

D. Surprisingly


Question13 of 14: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information I the highlighted sentence in the passage?

Incorrect choices change the meaning in important was or leave out essential information.

A. In many areas besides Abu Hureyra, complex factors led to new economies including the herding of domestic stock.

B. In Ain Ghazal and Syria domestic stock was more important that it was at Abu Hureyra.

C. Once early methods of herding animals improved, new economies were adopted.

D. Many complex theories attempt to explain the early domestication of animals.


Question13 of 14: Look at the four squares(■)that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

One of the major effects was the rapid growth of the human population itself.

A. The climatic changes in southwestern Asia were more subtle, in that they involved shifts in mountain snow lines, rainfall patterns, and vegetation cover.

B. However, these same cycles of change and had momentous impacts on the sparse human populations of the region.

C. At the end of the Ice Age, no more than a few thousand foragers lived along the eastern Mediterranean coast, in the Jordan and Euphrates valleys. Within 2,000years, the human population of the region numbered in the tens of thousands, all as a result of village life and farming.

D. Thanks to new environmental and archaeological discoveries, we now know something about this remarkable change in local life.

Question14 of 14: At the end of the Ice Age, patterns of human settlement changed in southwestern Asia.

Answer Choices

A. Wild cereals, grasses, and nuts were changed for exotic objects.

B. Changes in climatic conditions made southwestern Asia highly beneficial to human occupants.

C. Social organization in Abu Hureyra decreased as the population grew.

D. The favorable location of Abu Hureyra kept the city from experiencing hardship during drought years.

E. Within 2,000 years, populations in southwestern Asia greatly increased in number.

F. In rich, fertile areas permanent societies evolved to a high level of complexity.

 

TPO20托福阅读PassageEarly settlements in southwest Asia 真题解析


Question 1 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:momentous“重要的,重大的”,所以very important正确。从单词本身看,意思上应该跟moment相关,“时刻的”,A和D明显不合文意。原句提到这些变化对于本地稀疏的人口有什么影响,“常规的”影响明显不正确,答案是C。


Question 2 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:EXCEPT题,排除法。A/C/D都在第一段第一句中提到了,只有B没有提到,所以答案是B。


Question 3 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:指代题,需要沿着提到的内容往前看,前一句提到由于农业和城镇的发展,人口成千上万,紧接着提到this change,说这个变化指的就是人口的增长,所以答案是D。


Question 4 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:exploit“开采,开发,利用”,所以B的utilize正确。原句提到当地人怎么样自然景观,之后举了很多例子,有放牧有打猎等等,都是在利用自然环境,所以是“利用”。C“定居”和D“改善”都不正确;A选项不选,后面的例子说明不只是探索,所以答案是B。


Question 5 of 14

正确答案:A

解析:根据这些例子找定位,提到定居点里包含很多通过贸易获得的外来物品,诸如……,所以列举的这些东西都是外来品,A是正确答案。BCD都未提及。


Question 6 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:cramped“局促的,狭窄的,难懂的”,所以confined正确。原句提到在公元前9500年,一个村子的人都在一个什么样的住处里,根据句义,这里强调的是比较小,所以其他的都不合文意。而且extend刚好和confine是相反的意思,所以D是答案。


Question 7 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:Abu Hureyra做关键词定位至第一句的后半句和第二句的前半句,一直在说AH,接着往下看,提到接下来的1500年里,他们所在的地方气候温暖,种子丰富,所以答案是D,C与原文相反;A和B选项的内容在此并未提及。


Question 8 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:shift“转变,转换,倒班”,所以最接近的答案是change。原句提到漂浮的样品使得植物学家研究植物集群习惯的什么就好像在显微镜下看风景一样,风景是会变的,所以答案是change。A“影响”,B“相似”,D“例外”都不合文意。


Question 9 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:以abandoned long established settlement做关键词定位至最后一句,提到干旱如此严重,使他们放弃了原来的住所,所以放弃的原因是lack of rain,正确答案是D,其他都不是原因。


Question 10 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:采用排除法做该类型题目。A的domestication做关键词定位至第三句,提到驯养的动物不同,所以A正确,不选;B的gazelle做关键词定位至第二句,这只是7700 BC的事,不是不同也不是变化,所以B错误,可选;C的size做关键词定位至第四句的30 acre,所以C正确,不选;D的design和dwelling做关键词定位至倒数第二句,正确,不选。


Question 11 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:abruptly“突然,唐突”,所以正确答案是suddenly。原句提到7000BC左右,在几代人之间,他们怎么样改养goat和sheep,既然强调在几代人之间,肯定是变化比较快的,所以答案是suddenly,A和B都没提到改变得快,D的surprising强调主观感受,不选。


Question 12 of 14

正确答案:A

解析:原句的结构是诸多复杂因素导致新的economy的采用,然后后面给出了三个例子,所以正确答案是A。B,C,D都缺失原文主干,不选。


Question 13 of 14

正确答案:C

解析: 根据one of…effects可以看出插入句前的句子是在讲影响,接着后半句说影响之一是人口迅速增长,词句作为一个概括句,可大致估测后面可能是在细讲人口增长相关的内容,结合以上两点,不难选出正确答案C。


Question 14 of 14

正确答案:BEF

解析:A选项,文中虽然提到了cereals, grasses, nuts以及exotic objects,但是并没有讲到他们中的任何联系,属于无中生有,B选项对应的是文章第二段的内容,说西南亚在冰河时代末期气候温和,适合人类居住;C选项刚好与第三段后部分的内容说反了;D选项与第四段的内容是矛盾的,第四段中讲到了人们最后放弃了长期居住的住所,分散到了小野营房居住;E选项对应的是文章第一段的后面部分的内容,提到西南亚人口的增长,所以正确;F选项是文中第三段最后一句话的转述,也是正确的,最终答案应该是BEF。


全套TPO阅读原文+题目文本+答案解析手册(合计1300页文档),在雷哥托福微信公众号获取


雷哥托福上课详情请咨询老师

1、请联系官方QQ:2250281936;

2、请联系官方个人微信号:toefl12345;

3、请咨询官方电话:400-6021-727;


【使用提示】

1、雷哥托福在线直播课,不限地域,全球考生均可报名参与。

2、获取更多托福信息,请关注雷哥托福微信公众号:toeflgo 



分享:

发表评价

游客

●热门话题

  • 托福考试报名
  • 托福备考资料
  • 托福报名流程
  • 托福机经预测
  • 托福考试时间
  • 托福转考
  • 托福报名费用
  • 托福培训
  • 托福在线课程

更多托福最新咨询及福利,关注公众号,雷哥托福(ID:toeflgo)

雷哥托福toeflgo

托福备考效率不高?托福干货天天免费大放送;

备考提分有瓶颈?口语陪练和写作精批机会领取!

每周托福提分训练营、精品公开课、单词团等你啦~

加我,免费获取资料啦~

雷哥托福-Cassie(lgtoefl666)




联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

  • 上海(总部)
  • 北京
  • 成都
  • 杭州
  • 武汉
  • 南京
  • 广州
  • 西安
  • 重庆
  • 深圳
  • 上海(总部)服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:上海市徐汇区文定路218号德必徐家汇WE艺术湾B座205

    公交路线:76路、93路、138路宜山路蒲汇塘路站;205路、732路、754路南丹路宜山路站;205路、754路、830路南丹路文定路站等

    地铁路线:地铁3号线、4号线宜山路站出站470m;地铁1号线、4号线上海体育馆站出站600m。

  • 北京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:北京市朝阳区雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦508

    公交路线:乘坐公交44路外环;58路;139路;特12路外环;特2路;夜20路外环到雅宝路公交站 下车,走140米即可达到。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁1号线、2号线到建国门站(A出口)步行1000米即可到达;乘坐地铁2号线、6号线到朝阳门站(A出口)步行1200米即可到达雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦。

  • 成都服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:成都市锦江区总府路31号Z31六楼(皇冠假日酒店旁)

    公交路线:乘坐58路、98路、锦城观光3号线、熊猫快线5号线在春熙路步行街北站下 步行约281米。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线或者3号线到春熙路C口下,步行约982米

  • 杭州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:杭州市江干区江锦路159号 平安金融中心B座8楼

    公交路线:901路、105路环线、106路环线、9M路:富春路民心路口站 176路:市民中心北大门站,市民中心西大门站

    地铁路线:号线钱江路站;4号线钱江路,江锦路

  • 武汉服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:武汉市珞瑜路光谷世界城广场写字楼1栋1单元14层11421室

    公交路线:乘坐18路,25路,340路,510路,518路,521路等公交车到珞瑜路湖北省中医院站下车

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线至珞雄路A口出,往湖北省中医院光谷院区方向步行50米至世界城广场写字楼

  • 南京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址: 南京市秦淮区中山东路532号金蝶科技园 H1幢308号(林客社 内)

    公交路线:5路 34路 34路区间 36路 55路 59路 y5路夜间 17路 65路 115路 118路 y17路夜间

    地铁路线:地铁2号线明故宫站1号口出,向东200米

  • 广州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:广州市天河区体育西路103号维多利广场B座26楼K15

    公交路线:11,18,20,230,278,293,45,583,669,886冼村路中站下。 194,40,777,778,90,观光2路花城广场路站下。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁APM线至花城大道站下B口出,步行约500米即可到达保利威座大厦北塔。

  • 西安服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:西安市莲湖区北大街西华门十字西南角78号嘉会广场C座4层B021号

    公交路线:4路、12路、26路、36路、37路、229路、游7钟楼北站;15路、16路、32路、102路、182路、236路、286路西华门站。

    地铁路线:地铁二号线钟楼站150米;地铁一号线/二号线北大街站700米。

  • 重庆服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:重庆市渝中区邹容路68号大都会广场16楼1603-1604室

    公交路线:401、135、114、111、401、151、862、181、262、105、866、153、466

    地铁路线:2号线临江门站500米、1号线小什字站500米、6号线小什字站500米。

  • 深圳服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:深圳市罗湖区书城路都市名园B栋5楼B区(只接受预约拜访)

    公交路线:101路 10路 12路 203路 214路 215路 223路 29路 3路 85路 M112路 M191路 M192路 N3路 P100路(定制公交请预约) 高快巴士200号线 高快巴士20路 高快巴士863号线到地王大厦下,步行431米即可到达。

    地铁路线:乘坐1号线/罗宝线/2号线/蛇口线到大剧院(E口)出,步行498米即可到达都市名园B栋

预约托福考试规划师