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Official19 托福阅读Passage1 THE ROMAN ARMY’S IMPACT ON BRITAIN 文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】

2019-02-11 09:37:37 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:2942

TPO19 托福阅读Passage1 THE ROMAN ARMY’S IMPACT ON BRITAIN 文本+题目原文+答案解析


THE ROMAN ARMY’S IMPACT ON BRITAIN

In the wake of the Roman Empire's conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., a large number of troops stayed in the new province, and these troops had a considerable impact on Britain with their camps, fortifications, and participation in the local economy. Assessing the impact of the army on the civilian population starts from the realization that the soldiers were always unevenly distributed across the country. Areas rapidly incorporated into the empire were not long affected by the military. Where the army remained stationed, its presence was much more influential. The imposition of a military base involved the requisition of native lands for both the fort and the territory needed to feed and exercise the soldiers' animals. The imposition of military rule also robbed local leaders of opportunities to participate in local government, so social development was stunted and the seeds of disaffection sown. This then meant that the military had to remain to suppress rebellion and organize government.

Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with it very substantial spending power. Locally a fort had two kinds of impact. Its large population needed food and other supplies. Some of these were certainly brought from long distances, but demands were inevitably placed on the local area. Although goods could be requisitioned, they were usually paid for, and this probably stimulated changes in the local economy. When not campaigning, soldiers needed to be occupied; otherwise they represented a potentially dangerous source of friction and disloyalty. Hence a writing tablet dated 25 April tells of 343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead. Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas.

Each soldier received his pay, but in regions without a developed economy there was initially little on which it could be spent. The pool of excess cash rapidly stimulated a thriving economy outside fort gates. Some of the demand for the services and goods was no doubt fulfilled by people drawn from far afield, but some local people certainly became entwined in this new economy. There was informal marriage with soldiers, who until AD 197 were not legally entitled to wed, and whole new communities grew up near the forts. These settlements acted like small towns, becoming centers for the artisan and trading populations.

The army also provided a means of personal advancement for auxiliary soldiers recruited from the native peoples, as a man obtained hereditary Roman citizenship on retirement after service in an auxiliary regiment. Such units recruited on an ad hoc (as needed) basis from the area in which they were stationed, and there was evidently large-scale recruitment within Britain. The total numbers were at least 12,500 men up| to the reign of the emperor Hadrian (A.D. 117-138), with a peak around A.D. 80. Although a small proportion of the total population, this perhaps had a massive local impact when a large proportion of the young men were removed from an area. Newly raised regiments were normally transferred to another province from whence it was unlikely that individual recruits would ever return. Most units raised in Britain went elsewhere on the European continent, although one is recorded in Morocco. The reverse process brought young men to Britain, where many continued to live after their 20 to 25 years of service, and this added to the cosmopolitan Roman character of the frontier population. By the later Roman period, frontier garrisons (groups of soldiers) were only rarely transferred, service in units became effectively hereditary, and forts were no longer populated or maintained at full strength.

This process of settling in as a community over several generations, combined with local recruitment, presumably accounts for the apparent stability of the British northern frontier in the later Roman period. It also explains why some of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal authority in Britain, at the beginning of the fifth century A.D. The circumstances that had allowed natives to become Romanized also led the self-sustaining military community of the frontier area to become effectively British.

Paragraph 2:Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with it very substantial spending power. Locally a fort had two kinds of impact. Its large population needed food and other supplies. ■ Some of these were certainly brought from long distances, but demands were inevitably placed on the local area. ■ Although goods could be requisitioned, they were usually paid for, and this probably stimulated changes in the local economy. ■ When not campaigning, soldiers needed to be occupied; otherwise they represented a potentially dangerous source of friction and disloyalty. ■ Hence a writing tablet dated 25 April tells of 343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead. Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas.


TPO19托福阅读 Passage1 THE ROMAN ARMY’S IMPACT ON BRITAIN 题目


Question 1 of 14: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Many Roman soldiers remained in Britain after conquering it, and their presence had a strong influence.

B. The new Roman province of Britain seemed to awaken in the first century A.D as the local economy improved.

C. Camps, fortifications, and economic change contributed to the Roman conquest of Britain.

D. With the conquest of Britain by Roman troops, the Roman Empire gained considerable economic strength.


Question 2 of 14: According to paragraph 1, the Roman army had the most influence on those areas of Britain that were

A. conquered first

B. near population centers

C. used as military bases

D. rapidly incorporated into the empire


Question 3 of 14: According to paragraph 1, what effect did military occupation have on the local population?

A. It encouraged more even distribution of the population and the settlement of previously undeveloped territory.

B. It created discontent and made continuing military occupation necessary.

C. It required local labor to construct forts and feed and exercise the soldiers' animals.

D. It provided local leaders with opportunities to participate in governance.


Question 4 of 14: The word “suppress” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. respond to

B. warn against

C. avoid the impact of

D. stop by force


Question 5 of 14: The word “friction” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. rebellion

B. conflict

C. neglect

D. crime


Question 6 of 14: The author mentions “343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead” in order to

A. describe the kinds of tasks soldiers were required to perform as punishment for disloyalty or misdeeds.

B. illustrate some of the duties assigned to soldiers to keep them busy and well-behaved when not involved in military campaigns.

C. provide evidence that Roman soldiers had a negative effect on the local area by performing jobs that had been performed by native workers.

D. argue that the soldiers would have been better employed in the construction of infrastructure such as roads.


Question 7 of 14: The phrase “entitled to” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. given the right to

B. able to afford to

C. encouraged to

D. required to


Question 8 of 14: According to paragraph 3, how did the soldiers meet their needs for goods and services?

A. Their needs were met by the army, and all of their economic transactions took place within the fort.

B. Most of their needs were met by traveling tradespeople who visited the forts.

C. During their days off, soldiers traveled to distant towns to make purchases.

D. They bought what they needed from the artisans and traders in nearby towns.


Question 9 of 14: According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of Britain's auxiliary regiments of the Roman army?

A. Membership in these regiments reached its highest point during the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

B. Most of the units recruited in Britain were sent to Morocco and other stations outside Europe.

C. Soldiers served in the regiments for many years and after retirement generally stayed where they had been stationed.

D. Most of the regiments stationed on the frontier were new units transferred from a neighboring province.


Question10 of 14: According to paragraph 4, all of the following changes could be seen in the frontier garrisons by the later Roman period EXCEPT:

A. Membership in the units passed from father to son.

B. Fewer soldiers were stationed at the forts.

C. Soldiers usually were not transferred to different locations.

D. Frontier units became more effective and proficient.


Question 11 of 14: Why does the author mention that “some of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal authority in Britain”?

A. To emphasize the degree to which the stability of the British northern frontier depended on firm military control

B. To suggest that the Romans continued to occupy Britain even after they had formally given up the right to do so

C. To support the claim that forts continued to serve an important economic function even after they ceased to be of any military use

D. To describe one of the things that resulted from frontier garrisons' becoming part of the local community over a long period


Question 12 of 14: The word “circumstances” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. experiences

B. communities

C. conditions

D. laws


Question 13 of 14: Look at the four squares [■]that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

One solution was to keep them busy as sources of labor.

A. Some of these were certainly brought from long distances, but demands were inevitably placed on the local area. 

B. Although goods could be requisitioned, they were usually paid for, and this probably stimulated changes in the local economy. 

C. When not campaigning, soldiers needed to be occupied; otherwise they represented a potentially dangerous source of friction and disloyalty. 

D. Hence a writing tablet dated 25 April tells of 343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead. 


Question 14 of 14:The Roman army's occupation of Britain influenced and changed the local population.

Answer Choices

A. Although the presence of the army in certain areas caused resentment among the local population, it provided important services such as building infrastructure.

B. By recruiting unemployed young men for its auxiliary units, the army made it possible for them to stay in their home towns and provide financial support for their families.

C. Large quantities of cash from soldiers' pay stimulated development, but also drove up prices, making it hard for local residents to afford goods and services.

D. Though the army appropriated land and some goods, it also paid for many supplies, stimulating local economic growth.

E. The forts contributed to the quality of local crafts by bringing in artisans from distant places who brought with them new skills and techniques.

F. Roman soldiers started families with local inhabitants, and over the generations, the military community became a stable part of British society.

 

TPO19托福阅读Passage1 THE ROMAN ARMY’S IMPACT ON BRITAIN真题解析


Question 1 of 14

正确答案:A

解析:高亮部分的主干意思是:大量军队驻扎在新省份,并对英国产生重大影响。所以A正确。in the wake of 意为“随着”,与awaken意义不同,B偷换概念,错误;C将原文的非主要成分camps, fortification变成了主要部分,改变了句子结构,意义也错误;D选项错在经济只是影响的一方面,不是全部,这里以偏概全了。


Question 2 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:以area和most influence做关键词定位至第一段第四句,提到军队一直驻扎的地方,其影响最深远,所以答案是C,作为军事基地的地方。AB都没提到,D与第三句相反。

 

Question 3 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:以local population做关键词定位至第一段倒数第二句和最后一句,提到军事驻扎剥夺了当地人参加政府的权力,使发展停滞,种下仇恨的种子,然后又说军队只好继续驻扎,镇压叛乱、组织政府,所以正确答案是B。A和C原文未提及,D与原文相反。

 

Question 4 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:suppress“镇压,压制”,所以D stop by force是正确答案。


Question 5 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:friction“摩擦”,所以正确答案是B “冲突”。


Question 6 of 14

正确答案:B

解析:修辞目的题,修辞点所在句子只是单纯说出例子,所以不是答案,往前看,前面提到士兵必须有事做,否则就会闹事儿,后面再给出343名士兵从事工作的例子,所以是用例子来印证前面的观点,对应B选项。


Question 7 of 14

正确答案:A

解析:entitle to“赋予权力,授权”,所以正确答案是A。原句提到当地人与军人之间有不正式的婚约,紧接着解释直到AD 197年法律才_____他们结婚,既然之前都是不正式的,说明后来的应该是法律允许的,猜出“允许”之意,答案是A,B“承担得起”C“鼓励”D“要求”都不合文意。


Question 8 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:这题最好用排除法做。A与第三段第二句相反,原文是说在fort gates之外形成了繁荣经济,而不是within the fort;B偷换概念,原文第三句说的是有部分贸易是旅商完成的,而不是most;C信息未在原文体现,未提是否是士兵放假时去周边购买。因此D正确。要结合全段信息去理解:本段说到士兵会发放工资,但是堡垒内没有可以消费的地方,后来在堡垒外形成了繁荣的经济,有远道而来的商人,也有本地人,最后形成了像小镇一样的定居地,成为工匠和商人的聚集地。可以推测出士兵就是去周边的小镇从工匠和商人那购买物品。


Question 9 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:第四段第三句提出达到顶峰的时间是AD 80年,而Hadrian在任的时间是AD 117-138年,并不在其执政期间,所以A错误;B的outside Europe与原文第段倒数第三句相反;C与第四段倒数第二句一致,很多人服役了20到25年之后留在英国,正确;D在原文中没提到。


Question 10 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:EXCEPT题,排除法,A的from father to son做关键词定位至最后一句的hereditary,正确,不选;B的fewer soldiers 和fort做关键词定位至最后一句,正确,不选;C的not transferred to different location做关键词定位至最后一句,正确,不选;D原文完全未提及,所以错误,可选。


Question 11 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:修辞目的题,修辞点所在句子单纯说了一个例子,而且it also explains也说明要往前看,前一句提到定居在一个地方需要经过若干代人,这种行为能够解释英国北部边界的稳定性,后面又说到:这也解释了为什么五世纪初时这些军事基地在罗马已经不再统治英国之后依然存在,所以答案是D,其他的都未提及。


Question 12 of 14

正确答案:C

解析:circumstance“环境”,所以答案是C的condition。


Question 13 of 14

正确答案:D

解析:插入句中的them根据句意应该指的是士兵们,插入句说的是:解决办法就是让他们作为劳力保持忙碌。既然提到解决办法,说明前面一句说了问题,对应D选项,前面说的是343名士兵如果太闲,可能会有冲突甚至不忠。


Question 14 of 14

正确答案:ADF

解析:A选项对应第一段倒数第二句和第二段最后一句,正确;D选项对应第二段第五句,正确;F选项对应第五段第一句,正确。

B选项中的unemployed men在原文中没有提及,错误;C选项中的drove up price原文中没有提及,错误;E选项中的手工艺品质量提高、新技术新科技等信息在原文中没有提及,错误。


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