关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

Official12托福阅读Passage1Water in the Desert文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】

2019-01-25 11:17:13 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:2850

TPO12托福阅读Passage1Water in the Desert文本+题目原文+答案解析


Water in the Desert

Rainfall is not completely absent in desert areas, but it is highly variable. An annual rainfall of four inches is often used to define the limits of a desert. The impact of rainfall upon the surface water and groundwater resources of the desert is greatly influenced by landforms. Flats and depressions where water can collect are common features, but they make up only a small part of the landscape.

Arid lands, surprisingly, contain some of the world’s largest river systems, such as the Murray-Darling in Australia, the Rio Grande in North America, the Indus in Asia, and the Nile in Africa. These rivers and river systems are known as "exogenous" because their sources lie outside the arid zone. They are vital for sustaining life in some of the driest parts of the world. For centuries, the annual floods of the Nile. Tigris, and Euphrates, for example, has brought fertile silts and water to the inhabitants of their lower valleys. Today, river discharges are increasingly controlled by human intervention, creating a need for international river-basin agreements. The filling of the Ataturk and other dams in Turkey has drastically reduced flows in the Euphrates, with potentially serious consequences for Syria and Iraq.

The flow of exogenous rivers varies with the season. The desert sections of long rivers respond several months after rain has fallen outside the desert, so that peak flows may be in the dry season. This is useful for irrigation, but the high temperatures, low humidity, and different day lengths of the dry season, compared to the normal growing season, can present difficulties with some crops.

Regularly flowing rivers and streams that originate within arid lands are known as "endogenous." These are generally fed by groundwater springs, and many issue from limestone massifs, such as the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Basaltic rocks also support springs, notably at the Jabal Al-Arab on the Jordan-Syria border. [Endogenous Rivers often do not reach the sea but drain into inland basins, where the water evaporates or is lost in the ground. [Most desert streambeds are normally dry, but they occasionally receive large flows of water and sediment.[

Deserts contain large amounts of groundwater when compared to the amounts they hold in surface stores such as lakes and rivers. [But only a small fraction of groundwater enters the hydrological cycle-feeding the flows of streams, maintaining lake levels, and being recharged (or refilled) through surface flows and rainwater. In recent years, groundwater has become an increasingly important source of freshwater for desert dwellers. The United Nations Environment Program me and the World Bank have funded attempts to survey the groundwater resources of arid lands and to develop appropriate extraction techniques. Such programs are much needed because in many arid lands there is only a vague idea of the extent of groundwater resources. It is known, however, that the distribution of groundwater is uneven, and that much of it lies at great depths.

Groundwater is stored in the pore spaces and joints of rocks and unconsolidated (unsolidified) sediments or in the openings widened through fractures and weathering. The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an "aquifer". Because they are porous, sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, are important potential sources of groundwater. Large quantities of water may also be stored in lime stones when joints and cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. Most limestone and sandstone aquifers are deep and extensive but may contain ground waters that are not being recharged. Most shallow aquifers in sand and gravel deposits produce lower yields, but they can be rapidly recharged. Some deep aquifers are known as "fossil waters. The term "fossil" describes water that has been present for several thousand years. These aquifers became saturated more than 10,000 years ago and are no longer being recharged.

Water does not remain immobile in an aquifer but can seep out at springs or leak into other aquifers. The rate of movement may be very slow: in the Indus plain, the movement of saline (salty) ground waters has still not reached equilibrium after 70 years of being tapped. The mineral content of groundwater normally increases with the depth, but even quite shallow aquifers can be highly saline.


TPO12托福阅读Passage1Water in the Desert题目


Question 1 of 13Which of the following statements about annual rainfall can be inferred from paragraph 1?  

A Flat desert areas receive more annual rainfall than desert areas with mountains. 

B Areas that receive more than four inches of rain per year are not considered deserts. 

C Many areas receive less than four inches of annual rainfall, but only a few are deserts. 

D Annual rainfall has no impact on the groundwater resources of desert areas.


Question 2 of 13The word “drastically” in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A obviously 

B unfortunately 

C rapidly 

D severely


Question 3 of 13: In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the Ataturk and other dams in Turkey? 

A To contrast the Euphrates River with other exogenous rivers 

B To illustrate the technological advances in dam building 

C To argue that dams should not be built on the Euphrates River 

D To support the idea that international river-basin agreements are needed


Question 4 of 13: According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of the Nile River?  

A The Nile's flow in its desert sections is at its lowest during the dry season 

B The Nile's sources are located in one of the most arid zones of the world 

C The Nile's annual floods bring fertile silts and water to its lower valley 

D The Nile's periodic flooding hinders the growth of some crops


Question 5 of 13 The word “dwellers” in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A settlements 

B farmers 

C tribes 

D inhabitants


Question 6 of 13Paragraph 5 supports all of the following statements about the groundwater in deserts EXCEPT:  

A The groundwater is consistently found just below the surface 

B A small part of the groundwater helps maintain lake levels 

C Most of the groundwater is not recharged through surface water 

D The groundwater is increasingly used as a source of freshwater


Question 7 of 13The word “fractures” in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A streams 

B cracks 

C storms 

D earthquakes


Question 8 of 13  According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements about aquifers in deserts is true?  

A Water from limestone and sandstone aquifers is generally better to drink than water from sand and gravel aquifers 

B Sand and gravel aquifers tend to contain less groundwater than limestone or sandstone aquifers 

C Groundwater in deep aquifers is more likely to be recharged than groundwater in shallow aquifers 

D Sedimentary rocks, because they are porous, are not capable of storing large amounts of groundwater


Question 9 of 13According to paragraph 6, the aquifers called fossil waters 

A contain fossils that are thousands of years old 

B took more than 10,000 years to become saturated with water 

C have not gained or lost any water for thousands of years 

D have been collecting water for the past 10,000 years


Question 10 of 13Paragraph 6:The word “immobile” in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A enclosed 

B permanent 

C motionless 

D intact


Question 11 of 13: The passage supports which of the following statements about water in the desert?  

A The most visible forms of water are not the most widespread forms of water in the desert. 

B Groundwater in the desert cannot become a source of drinking water but can be used for irrigation. 

C Most of the water in the desert is contained in shallow aquifers that are being rapidly recharged. 

D Desert areas that lack endogenous or exogenous rivers and streams cannot support life.


Question 12 of 13:Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

These sudden floods provide important water supplies but can also be highly destructive.

A. Endogenous Rivers often do not reach the sea but drain into inland basins, where the water evaporates or is lost in the ground. 

B. Most desert streambeds are normally dry, but they occasionally receive large flows of water and sediment.

C. Deserts contain large amounts of groundwater when compared to the amounts they hold in surface stores such as lakes and rivers.

D. But only a small fraction of groundwater enters the hydrological cycle-feeding the flows of streams, maintaining lake levels, and being recharged (or refilled) through surface flows and rainwater. 

 

Question 13 of 13:Directions: Select from the seven sentences below, the two sentences that correctly characterize endogenous rivers and the three sentences that correctly characterize exogenous rivers. Drag each sentence you select into the appropriate column of the table. Two of the sentences will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.  Endogenous Rivers: Exogenous Rivers:  

A.Their water generally comes from groundwater springs. 

B. Their water is saltier than the water of most other rivers. 

C. They include some of the world's largest rivers. 

D. They originate outside the desert.

E. They often drain into inland basins and do not reach the sea. 

F. They contain too much silt to be useful for irrigation. 

G. Their water flow generally varies with the season of the year.

 

TPO12托福阅读Passage1Water in the Desert真题解析


Question 1 of 13

正确答案:B

解析:根据annual rainfall定位到第2句,说4英尺的年降水量是沙漠的最大量,可以推出B(年降水量查过4英尺的地区不是沙漠)。A原文没有这个比较,C原文没有说many areas降水量大于4,D与原文相反

 

Question 2 of 13

正确答案:D

解析:原句说填埋水坝drastically降低了流动,说明 drastically是一个表示程度的副词,ABC都不符合,选D. drastically 彻底地、激烈地


Question 3 of 13

正确答案:D

解析:根据大写词定位到最后一句,修辞目的题再往前看。前句说人工引流需要国际协议,后句就举Ataturk and other dams的例子说明在土耳其填埋水坝会给叙利亚和伊拉克造成严重后果,所以证明了前句的论点(需要国际协议),选D

 

Question 4 of 13

正确答案:C

解析:根据Nile River定位到Today前面的内容,A没说,B原文没说most,C对应For centuries...这句,D原文没说hinders。


Question 5 of 13

正确答案:D

解析:dwell居住,与D同


Question 6 of 13

正确答案:A

解析:A根据surface定位到第1句,原句说lakes+rivers的水在表面,但没说地下水是just below surface. B根据maintain定位到第2句,对。C根据recharge定位到第2句,说只有小部分recharged...,那么大部分就not recharged...,对。D根据freshwater定位到第3句,对。


Question 7 of 13

正确答案:B

解析:fracture破裂、断裂,与B近。原句说的是groundwater储存的位置:或者在openings处,该处由fractures and weathering扩宽,说明fractures和weathering是并列的,排除ACD自然事物,选B


Question 8 of 13

正确答案:B

解析:A根据limestone定位到第4句(Large quantities of water...),但该句没有比较,错。B根据sand and gravel定位到第倒数第4句(Most shallow aquifers...)说这两者产量(产生groundwater)更低,对。C根据deep aquifers定位到倒数第3句,没有C中的比较。D根据sedimentary rocks定位到第3句,说是重要的groundwater来源,D内容与原文相反。


Question 9 of 13

正确答案:C

解析:根据fossil water定位到倒数第1-3句。A错,并非是含化石,原文只是说这些水域年代久远。B与原文叙述有出入,原文说的是1万年前就饱和了,选项说用1万年来形成。C原文说1万年前就饱和了,就不需要recharge,所以是not gained or lost any water. D原文说不需要recharge,那就是没有再collecting water. 选C


Question 10 of 13

正确答案:C

解析:mobile移动的,immobile不动的,选C


Question 11 of 13

正确答案:A

解析:A,在第5段开头说到沙漠有大量地下水,相比之下,湖泊和河流的水是在表面,所以A说在沙漠中,最看得见的水的形式(地上水)不是分布最广泛的水的形式(地下水),A对。B原文第3段有说到能够灌溉,但没提能不能喝。C,原文第6段倒数第4句说大多数shallow aquifers能被rapidly recharged,没说大多沙漠水在shallow aquifers中,错。D没说。


Question 12 of 13

正确答案:C

解析:插入句提到these sudden floods说明前文提到过sudden floods或相关相似信息。C前提到large flows of water and sediment是floods的同义表达,选C


Question 13 of 13

正确答案:CDG

解析:exogenous在第2段第2句+第3段首句。通过第2段第2句these可知指代前句的这些河流(largest),所以C对。第2句说它们的源头在干旱地区之外,所以D对。通过第3段首句可知G对。 Endogenous在第4段首句,该段第2句对应A选项,第4句对应E选项。

 

全套TPO阅读原文+题目文本+答案解析手册(合计1300页文档),在雷哥托福微信公众号获取


雷哥托福上课详情请咨询老师

1、请联系官方QQ:2250281936;

2、请联系官方个人微信号:toefl12345;

3、请咨询官方电话:400-6021-727;


【使用提示】

1、雷哥托福在线直播课,不限地域,全球考生均可报名参与。

2、获取更多托福信息,请关注雷哥托福微信公众号:toeflgo 



分享:

发表评价

游客

●热门话题

  • 托福考试报名
  • 托福备考资料
  • 托福报名流程
  • 托福机经预测
  • 托福考试时间
  • 托福转考
  • 托福报名费用
  • 托福培训
  • 托福在线课程

更多托福最新咨询及福利,关注公众号,雷哥托福(ID:toeflgo)

雷哥托福toeflgo

托福备考效率不高?托福干货天天免费大放送;

备考提分有瓶颈?口语陪练和写作精批机会领取!

每周托福提分训练营、精品公开课、单词团等你啦~

加我,免费获取资料啦~

雷哥托福-Cassie(lgtoefl666)




联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

  • 上海(总部)
  • 北京
  • 成都
  • 杭州
  • 武汉
  • 南京
  • 广州
  • 西安
  • 重庆
  • 深圳
  • 上海(总部)服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:上海市徐汇区文定路218号德必徐家汇WE艺术湾B座205

    公交路线:76路、93路、138路宜山路蒲汇塘路站;205路、732路、754路南丹路宜山路站;205路、754路、830路南丹路文定路站等

    地铁路线:地铁3号线、4号线宜山路站出站470m;地铁1号线、4号线上海体育馆站出站600m。

  • 北京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:北京市朝阳区雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦508

    公交路线:乘坐公交44路外环;58路;139路;特12路外环;特2路;夜20路外环到雅宝路公交站 下车,走140米即可达到。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁1号线、2号线到建国门站(A出口)步行1000米即可到达;乘坐地铁2号线、6号线到朝阳门站(A出口)步行1200米即可到达雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦。

  • 成都服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:成都市锦江区总府路31号Z31六楼(皇冠假日酒店旁)

    公交路线:乘坐58路、98路、锦城观光3号线、熊猫快线5号线在春熙路步行街北站下 步行约281米。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线或者3号线到春熙路C口下,步行约982米

  • 杭州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:杭州市江干区江锦路159号 平安金融中心B座8楼

    公交路线:901路、105路环线、106路环线、9M路:富春路民心路口站 176路:市民中心北大门站,市民中心西大门站

    地铁路线:号线钱江路站;4号线钱江路,江锦路

  • 武汉服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:武汉市珞瑜路光谷世界城广场写字楼1栋1单元14层11421室

    公交路线:乘坐18路,25路,340路,510路,518路,521路等公交车到珞瑜路湖北省中医院站下车

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线至珞雄路A口出,往湖北省中医院光谷院区方向步行50米至世界城广场写字楼

  • 南京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址: 南京市秦淮区中山东路532号金蝶科技园 H1幢308号(林客社 内)

    公交路线:5路 34路 34路区间 36路 55路 59路 y5路夜间 17路 65路 115路 118路 y17路夜间

    地铁路线:地铁2号线明故宫站1号口出,向东200米

  • 广州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:广州市天河区体育西路103号维多利广场B座26楼K15

    公交路线:11,18,20,230,278,293,45,583,669,886冼村路中站下。 194,40,777,778,90,观光2路花城广场路站下。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁APM线至花城大道站下B口出,步行约500米即可到达保利威座大厦北塔。

  • 西安服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:西安市莲湖区北大街西华门十字西南角78号嘉会广场C座4层B021号

    公交路线:4路、12路、26路、36路、37路、229路、游7钟楼北站;15路、16路、32路、102路、182路、236路、286路西华门站。

    地铁路线:地铁二号线钟楼站150米;地铁一号线/二号线北大街站700米。

  • 重庆服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:重庆市渝中区邹容路68号大都会广场16楼1603-1604室

    公交路线:401、135、114、111、401、151、862、181、262、105、866、153、466

    地铁路线:2号线临江门站500米、1号线小什字站500米、6号线小什字站500米。

  • 深圳服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:深圳市罗湖区书城路都市名园B栋5楼B区(只接受预约拜访)

    公交路线:101路 10路 12路 203路 214路 215路 223路 29路 3路 85路 M112路 M191路 M192路 N3路 P100路(定制公交请预约) 高快巴士200号线 高快巴士20路 高快巴士863号线到地王大厦下,步行431米即可到达。

    地铁路线:乘坐1号线/罗宝线/2号线/蛇口线到大剧院(E口)出,步行498米即可到达都市名园B栋

预约托福考试规划师