Official9托福阅读Passage3The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】2019-01-23 10:29:10 发布 来源：雷哥托福 阅读量:3625
TPO9托福阅读Passage3The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii文本+题目原文+答案解析
The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii
When the Hawaiian Islands emerged from the sea as volcanoes, starting about five million years ago, they were far removed from other landmasses. Then, as blazing sunshine alternated with drenching rains, the harsh, barren surfaces of the black rocks slowly began to soften. Winds brought a variety of life-forms.
Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks. A few of these spores found a toehold on the dark, forbidding rocks and grew and began to work their transformation upon the land. Lichens were probably the first successful flora. These are not single individual plants; each one is a symbiotic combination of an alga and a fungus. The algae capture the sun's energy by photosynthesis and store it in organic molecules. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living thing that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.
Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. [■] These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. [■] Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. [■] Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. [■] But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.
Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard–like the shell of a nut–for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.
Plants with large, buoyant seeds—like coconuts—drift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater when they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats soften. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun.
By means of these seeds, plants spread more widely to new locations, even to isolated islands like the Hawaiian archipelago, which lies more than 2,000 miles west of California and 3,500 miles east of Japan. The seeds of grasses, flowers, and blooming trees made the long trips to these islands.(Grasses are simple forms of angiosperms that bear their encapsulated seeds on long stalks.) In a surprisingly short time, angiosperms filled many of the land areas on Hawaii that had been bare.
TPO9托福阅读Passage3The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii题目
Question 1 of 14：The phrase “at random ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
B. over a long period of time
D. without a definite pattern
Question 2 of 14: It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the fungi in lichens benefit from their symbiotic relationship with algae in what way?
A. The algae help the fungi meet some of their energy needs.
B. The algae protect the fungi from the Sun's radiation.
C. The algae provide the fungi with greater space for absorbing water.
D. The fungi produce less waste in the presence of algae.
Question 3 of 14: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Some of the earliest important examples of symbiosis—the close cooperation of two or more living things—occur in island communities.
B. Symbiosis—the close cooperation of pairs or small groups of living organisms—is especially important in these island environments.
C. The first organisms on these islands worked together closely in a relationship known as symbiosis, which is particularly important on islands.
D. It is significant to note that organisms in the beginning stages of the development of island life cannot survive without close cooperation.
Question 4 of 14: The word “abundantly ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 5 of 14: The word “propagate ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 6 of 14: According to paragraph 3, what was the relationship between lichens and ferns in the development of plant life on Hawaii?
A. Ferns were able to grow because lichens created suitable soil.
B. The decomposition of ferns produced minerals that were used by lichens.
C. Lichens and ferns competed to grow in the same rocky environments.
D. Lichens and ferns were typically found together in volcanic areas.
Question 7 of 14: The word “This ” in the passage refers toA. the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii
B. the creation of the Hawaiian Islands
C. the evolution of ferns
D. the development of plants that produce seeds
Question 8 of 14: According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do? To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices.
A. Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant than spores do.
B. Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients.
C. Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers than spores are.
D. Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likely to take root and grow.
Question 9 of 14: Why does the author mention “a nut”, “a peach”, and “a cherry”?
A. To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survive than others
B. To point out that many angiosperms can be eaten
C. To provide examples of blooming plants
D. To illustrate the variety of coverings among angiosperm seeds
Question 10 of 14: The word “dormant ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 11 of 14: According to paragraph 5, a major reason that coconuts can establish themselves in distant locations is that their seeds can
A. survive long exposure to heat on island beaches
B. float and survive for long periods in ocean water
C. use saltwater for maintenance and growth
D. maintain hard, protective coats even after growing roots
Question 12 of 14: According to the passage, which of the following characteristics do spores and seeds have in common?
A. They may be surrounded by several layers of covering.
B. They are produced by flowering plants.
C. They may be spread by wind.
D. They are able to grow in barren soils.
Question 13 of 14: Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where could the sentence best fit?
So since the chances of survival for any individual spore are small, the plants have to produce many spores in order to propagate..
Question 14 of 14: Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.After the formation of the Hawaiian Islands, much time passed before conditions were suitable for plant life.
A.Algae are classified as symbiotic because they produce energy through the process of photosynthesis.
B.The first successful plants on Hawaii were probably lichens, which consist of algae and fungi living in a symbiotic relationship.
C.Lichens helped create favorable conditions for the growth of spore-producing plants such as ferns and mosses.
D.Seed-bearing plants evolved much later than spore-producing plants, but both types of plants had evolved well before the formation of the Hawaiian Islands.
E.Unlike spores, seeds must move to new habitats in order to have a strong chance of survival and growth.
F. Seed-bearing plants arrived and spread quickly in Hawaii, thanks to characteristics that increased their seeds’ ability to survive and to move to different areas.
TPO9托福阅读Passage3 The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii解析
Question 1 of 14
题目解析：at random: 随机。A是最终;B是经过很长一段时间;C是成功地;D是没有特定的模式。所以D的without definite pattern正确。对应原文：Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks.原句说：spore能够被风搬运到很远的地方，并且怎么样散落到mountain flank，风吹的东西明显不可能很确定。ABC都没有体现出风搬运的特点，错。
Question 2 of 14
题目解析：A 以lichen, fungus和algae做关键词定位至第三句以后，说algae捕获太阳能并储存，而fungi从土壤中吸收矿物质，滋养algae。问的是fungi如何受益，所以前半句是答案，A正确。B虽然提到sun，但不是保护，注意不要错选;C和D都没说。
Question 3 of 14
题目解析：C, 原文说岛上最早的生物是能够symbiosis的，然后解释了symbiosis。A的occur on island community是概念偷换，原文是用来修饰living thing的，没有occur这一层主要的意思，错;原文说生物能symbiosis，然后才说symbiosis很重要，B遗漏信息，没提到最早的生物，错;C正确;D完全改变了原文的结构，错。
Question 4 of 14
题目解析：abundantly: 丰富地，大量地。A是偶尔的;B是大量地，丰富地;C是有用地;D是幸运地。所以B的plentifully正确。对应原文:Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth.原句说lichens加快了岩石的分解，怎么样提供了岩石中的mineral，岩石分解了，岩石中的矿物会分散到土壤中，肯定就多了。A的occasionally说反;C和D完全不靠谱。
Question 5 of 14
题目解析：propagate: 繁殖，传播。A是繁殖，增加;B是浮现;C是生存;D是进化。所以A的multiply正确。对应原文:These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient.原句说这些植物通过产生小的spore来干嘛，对spore的解释是小的细胞，包含making a new plant的所有必要信息，从making a new plant看出是繁殖的意思，所以正确答案是A。
Question 6 of 14
Question 7 of 14
题目解析：D this指代之前的整个句子，就近原则看后半句，说另外一个flora在地球上进化出来，冒号之后就是那个flora，即：seed-bearing flower，所以后面的那个this应该指的是这个flora的进化，从this所在的句子的表语知道，this是一个生物的invention，就更能肯定答案是D。
Question 8 of 14
题目解析：BC 以chance of survival做关键词定位至第四句，一开始就出现thus，而且问题问的是原因，所以往前看，前文说了两个原因，第一个是有outer coating，第二个是有concentrated supply of nutrient，所以答案分别是B和C，其他两个答案没说。
Question 9 of 14
Question 10 of 14
题目解析：dormant: 休眠的，睡眠的，静止的，潜伏的。A是隐藏的;B是不活动的，闲置的;C是地下的;D是保存的。所以B的inactive正确。对应原文：These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months. 原句的前一句说这些特点使得种子更容易move到新的地点去，接着说能够travel through air，float in water，既然是移到新地点，在到达新地点之前种子是不能发芽的，所以应该不活跃。hidden看不见明显不对，因为前面不管是在空气还是在水里都能看见;在地下的话种子就没法动了，所以underground不对;preserved保存完全不靠谱。
Question 11 of 14
题目解析：B : 以coconut做关键词定位至第一句，但这句话明显与问题无关，只能往下看，而且distant location与原文第二句的ocean travel同义重合。说它们能够生活在长期的immersion下，正确答案B，注意C虽然提到了saltwater，但maintenance和growth都没说。
Question 12 of 14
Question 13 of 14
题目解析：B 两个过渡点，many spores和连词so，many spores确定A或者B，注意D因为few spore所以与待插入句无重合点，错;A之后有these plants与上文过渡紧密，排除，所以B正确，而且B之后的vast number of them刚好与待插入句中的many spores对上。
Question 14 of 14
题目解析：BCF Algae选项的因果关系原文没说，即使说了也是个细节，不选。The first选项对应第二段从第三句一直到最后的部分，正确。Lichens选项对应原文第三段前两句，正确。Seed-bearing plants evolved选项MS对应原文第四段首句，但这段的首句并不是这段的中心，所以这个选项是个细节，不选。Unlike选项原文没说，不选。Seed-bearing plants arrived选项对应原文第四段最后一句和第五段第一句，正确。