TPO9托福阅读Passage2Reflection in Teaching文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】2019-01-23 10:17:48 发布 来源：雷哥托福 阅读量:2779
TPO9托福阅读Passage2Reflection in Teaching文本+题目原文+答案解析
Reflection in Teaching
Teachers, it is thought, benefit from the practice of reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. Educators T. Wildman and J. Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching.
Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish–a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy. The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent, manner.
Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding in the teachers with whom they were working as being “utilitarian … and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection.” Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation.
Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central.[■] This process took time and patience and effective trainers. [■] The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.
[■] Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. [■] The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”
The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession’s cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into practice the ideas of theirs. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work (Jaworski, 1993) and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect – for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit.
TPO9托福阅读Passage2Reflection in Teaching题目
Question 1 of 13：The word “justified ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 2 of 13：According to paragraph 1, it was believed that reflection could help teachers
A. understand intellectual principles of teaching
B. strengthen their intellectual connection to their work
C. use scientific fact to improve discipline and teaching
D. adopt a more disciplined approach to teaching
Question 3 of 13：The word “flourish ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 4 of 13：All of the following are mentioned about the experimental strategy described in paragraph 2 EXCEPT:
A. It was designed so that teachers would eventually reflect without help from others.
B. It was used by a group of teachers over a period of years.
C. It involved having teachers take part in discussions of classroom events.
D. It involved having teachers record in writing their reflections about teaching.
Question 5 of 13: According to paragraph 2, Wildman and Niles worried that the teachers they were working with might feel that
A. the number of teachers involved in their program was too large
B. the concepts of teacher reflection were so abstract that they could not be applied
C. the ideas involved in reflection were actually not new and refreshing
D. several years would be needed to acquire the habit of reflecting on their teaching
Question 6 of 13: The word “objective ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 7 of 13: According to paragraph 3, what did the teachers working with Wildman and Niles often fail to do when they attempted to practice reflection?
A. Correctly calculate the amount of time needed for reflection.
B. Provide sufficiently detailed descriptions of the methods they used to help them reflect.
C. Examine thoughtfully the possible causes of events in their classrooms.
D. Establish realistic goals for themselves in practicing reflection.
Question 8 of 13: How is paragraph 4 related to other aspects of the discussion of reflection in the passage?
A. It describes and comments on steps taken to overcome problems identified earlier in the passage.
B. It challenges the earlier claim that teachers rarely have the time to think about their own or others' teaching.
C. It identifies advantages gained by teachers who followed the training program described earlier in the passage.
D. It explains the process used to define the principles discussed later in the passage.
Question 9 of 13：The word “compelling ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. commonly held
Question 10 of 13：According to paragraph 6, teachers may be discouraged from reflecting because
A. it is not generally supported by teacher educators
B. the benefits of reflection may not be apparent immediately
C. it is impossible to teach and reflect on one's teaching at the same time
D. they have often failed in their attempts to become reflective practitioners
Question 11 of 13：Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information
A. The practice of being reflective is no longer simply a habit among teachers but something that is externally motivated.
B. Most teachers need to explore ways to form the habit of reflection even when no external motivation exists.
C. Many aspects of the motivation to reflect have not been studied, including the comparative benefits of externally motivated and habitual reflection among teachers.
D. There has not been enough exploration of why teachers practice reflection as a habit with or without external motivation.
Question 12 of 13：Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where could the sentence best fit?
However, changing teachers’ thinking about reflection will not succeed unless there is support for reflection in the teaching environment..
Question 13 of 13：Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.Wildman and Niles have conducted research on reflection in teaching
A.Through their work with Virginia teachers, Wildman and Niles proved conclusively that reflection, though difficult, benefits both teachers and students.
B.Wildman and Niles found that considerable training and practice are required to understand classroom events and develop the skills involved in reflection.
C.Wildman and Niles identified three principles that teachers can use to help themselves cope with problems that may arise as a result of reflection.
D.Wildman and Niles concluded that teachers need sufficient resources as well as the cooperation and encouragement of others to practice reflection.
E.There are numerous obstacles to implementing reflection in schools and insufficient understanding of why teachers might want to reflect.
F. Whether teachers can overcome the difficulties involved in reflection may depend on the nature and intensity of their motivation to reflect.
TPO9托福阅读Passage2Reflection in Teaching解析
Question 1 of 13
题目解析：justify: 以…为证明。A是支持;B是发展，成形;C是刺激;D是暗示，建议。 想到just有正义之意，所以A的support正确。对应原文:This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching. 原句说观点justify前面的东西。看下两者的内容，之前说老师们benefit from reflection，后面说reflective practice帮助了老师，所以两者的意思应该相同，也就是justify是正向词，BCD都是中性，所以都不对。
Question 2 of 13
题目解析：以help teachers做关键词定位至最后一句：This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching. 帮助老师们智力上更多参与教学，所以答案是B，这里的改写程度比较大，所有容易错选。A的understand是概念偷换，原文说的是处理uncertainty of discipline;C和A一样是概念偷换，原文的scientific fact和discipline是并列关系，没有目的关系。
Question 3 of 13
题目解析：flourish: 繁盛，繁荣。A是继续;B是出现;C是成功;D是运用。所以C的succeed正确。对应原文：Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish–a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. 原文说这两个人对调查有兴趣，调查是关于reflection在某些情况下怎么样的。这个单凭本句甚至是所在段落都不是很好猜，但全文都在说reflection很好，所以也应该是个好词，A继续B发生D应用申请都不靠谱。
Question 4 of 13
题目解析：A的without help与第一句的little guidance同义重合：Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish–a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. A正确，不选。同样的，也可以从最后一句的independent看出来最终是独立地，不需要帮助的完成reflection; C的discussion与原文最后一句的talk同义重合。B的a period of years做关键词定位至原文第二句：They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. 这句话中说了是over several years，所以B正确，不选;D的writing原文没说，错，选。
Question 5 of 13
题目解析：worried做关键词定位至第三句的concern：They were concerned that many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge.说他们担心老师们觉得teaching的理论与现实之间的鸿沟难以逾越，所以B正确，其他都没提到。
Question 6 of 13
Question 7 of 13
题目解析：C 此题较难，题干中缺少关键词，排除法。A的time做关键词定位至第三句，原文说没有时间做，选项说计算时间，完全不是一回事，错;B的detailed descriptions做关键词定位至第二句，原文说老师们对reflection的理解不够细致，答案说对方法的描述不够细致，不是一回事，不选;C的cause与原文最后一句中的contributory factors同义重合，原文说evaluate rather than review，也就是没review原因，与C的examine原因是同义替换，正确;D没提及。
Question 8 of 13
Question 9 of 13
题目解析：compelling: 引人注目的，令人信服的。A是通常持有的;B是有说服力的;C是原始的;D是实际的。所以persuasive有说服力的正确。对应原文：Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.原文说我们学到的最重要的东西是，不会仅仅因为这是一个好的注意，甚至是compelling的注意而发生。句中compelling和good之间是递进关系，所以应该是比好更好，ACD都无法表达这个意思。
Question 10 of 13
题目解析：B 此题较难，题干中缺少关键词，排除法。A的educators做关键词定位至倒数第二句，原文说educator认为是好事，选项说不支持，说反了，错;B没有明显关键词，但倒数第四句说reflective practitioner需要额外工作，目标不清，最初少有回报，就是B项说的最初不会看到好处，对;C和D都没提及，不选。
Question 11 of 13
题目解析：C : 原文破折号后的是一个例子，而主干部分是：关于motivation有很多未知问题。A改变了原文主干，错;B将例子和主干混到一起，改变了原文结构，错;C正确;D具有一定迷惑性，原文破折号后面只是诸多未知问题其中的一个，D没提到主干的诸多未知问题，错。
Question 12 of 13
题目解析：C，两个过渡点，however和teaching environment，teaching environment与第五段的teaching situation重合，确定C或者D。D之后说first，之前说三个principal，所以过渡紧密，排除，正确答案C。第四段说改变thinking需要时间和人力，however一个转折，开始说teaching situation的变化对改变thinking的作用，所以however在这里刚好对上。
Question 13 of 13
题目解析：BDE 该文结构在托福阅读中比较特殊，算是研究综述，主要介绍两个人对教育反思实践的研究。 首段说教育反思的重要性。 二段说W和N对于实施反思教育的条件的研究。 三段仍是对于实施反思教育的条件的研究，强调sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner。 四段继续三段，强调通过训练才能实现教育反思。 五段介绍W和N发现的实施教育反思的三原则：领导支持，时间空间，团队氛围。 末段说W和N强调困难，其他人的研究强调动机的重要。 引导句是对正篇文章的概括。 A(through)选项错，原文只是说reflection对老师有好处，跟学生无关，不选。 B(Wildman and Niles found)选项对应原文第四段，正确。 C(Wildman and Niles identify)选项似乎对应五段，具有一定迷惑性，原文强调团队，强调领导支持，没说个人可以搞定，所以这个选项错，不选。 D(Wildman and Niles conclude)选项对应原文第五段的三个principal，正确。 E(There are)选项对应原文第六段两个部分内容，正确。 F(Whether)选项似乎对应原文六段后半段，但原文只说到motivation, 没说到nature 和intensity,不选。