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Official8托福阅读Passage1 The Rise of Teotihuacán文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】

2019-01-23 09:37:12 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:3708

TPO8托福阅读Passage1 The Rise of Teotihuacán文本+题目原文+答案解析


The Rise of Teotihuacán

The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200-100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. [■]It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. [■]Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. [■]Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central America and Mexico).[■]

How did this tremendous development take place, and why did it happen in the Teotihuacán Valley? Among the main factors are Teotihuacán’s geographic location on a natural trade route to the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsidian resources in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley’s potential for extensive irrigation. The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint―for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’s elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.

This last factor is at least circumstantially implicated in Teotihuacán’s rise. Prior to 200 B.C., a number of relatively small centers coexisted in and near the Valley of Mexico. Around this time, the largest of these centers, Cuicuilco, was seriously affected by a volcanic eruption, with much of its agricultural land covered by lava. With Cuicuilco eliminated as a potential rival, any one of a number of relatively modest towns might have emerged as a leading economic and political power in Central Mexico. The archaeological evidence clearly indicates, though, that Teotihuacán was the center that did arise as the predominant force in the area by the first century A.D.

It seems likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources, along with the city elite’s ability to recognize their potential, gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley, like many other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in obsidian. The hard volcanic stone was a resource that had been in great demand for many years, at least since the rise of the Olmecs (a people who flourished between 1200 and 400 B.C.), and it apparently had a secure market. Moreover, recent research on obsidian tools found at Olmec sites has shown that some of the obsidian obtained by the Olmecs originated near Teotihuacán. Teotihuacán obsidian must have been recognized as a valuable commodity for many centuries before the great city arose.

Long-distance trade in obsidian probably gave the elite residents of Teotihuacán access to a wide variety of exotic good, as well as a relatively prosperous life. Such success may have attracted immigrants to Teotihuacán. In addition, Teotihuacán’s elite may have consciously attempted to attract new inhabitants. It is also probable that as early as 200 B.C.Teotihuacán may have achieved some religious significance and its shrine (or shrines) may have served as an additional population magnet. Finally, the growing population was probably fed by increasing the number and size of irrigated fields.

The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture of positive feedback among obsidianmining and working, trade, population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. The thriving obsidian operation, for example, would necessitate more miners, additional manufacturers of obsidian tools, and additional traders to carry the goods to new markets. All this led to increased wealth, which in turn would attract more immigrants to Teotihuacán. The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite.



TPO8托福阅读Passage1The Rise of Teotihuacán题目


Question 1 of 14:The word “massive ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. ancient

B. carefully

C. very large

D. carefully protected


Question 2 of 14: In paragraph 1, each of the following is mentioned as a feature of the city of Teotihuacán between

A.D. 150 and 700 EXCEPTA. regularly arranged streets

B. several administrative centers spread across the city

C. many manufacturing workshops

D. apartment complexes


Question 3 of 14: The word “pinpoint ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. identify precisely

B. make an argument for

C. describe

D. understand


Question 4 of 14: The word “ingenuity ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. ambition

B. sincerity

C. faith

D. cleverness


Question 5 of 14: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as a main factor in the development of Teotihuacán?

A. The presence of obsidian in the Teotihuacán Valley

B. The potential for extensive irrigation of Teotihuacán Valley lands

C. A long period of volcanic inactivity in the Teotihuacán Valley

D. Teotihuacán’s location on a natural trade route


Question 6 of 14: Which of the following can be inferred from paragraphs 2 and 3 about the Volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.

A. They were more frequent than historians once thought.

B. They may have done more damage to Teotihuacán than to neighboring centers.

C. They may have played a major role in the rise of Teotihuacán.

D. They increased the need for extensive irrigation in the Teotihuacán Valley.


Question 7 of 14: What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Cuicuilco prior to 200 B.C?

A. It was a fairly small city until that date.

B. It was located outside the Valley of Mexico.

C. It emerged rapidly as an economical and political center.

D. Its economy relied heavily on agriculture.


Question 8 of 14: The word “predominant ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. most aggressive

B. most productive

C. principal

D. earliest


Question 9 of 14: Which of the following allowed Teotihuacán to have “a competitive edge over its neighbors ”?

A. A well-exploited and readily available commodity

B. The presence of a highly stable elite class

C. Knowledge derived directly from the Olmecs about the art of toolmaking

D. Scarce natural resources in nearby areas such as those located in what are now the Guatemalan and Mexican highlands


Question 10 of 14:According to paragraph 4, what has recent research on obsidian tools found at Olmec sites shown?

A. Obsidian’s value was understood only when Teotihuacán became an important city.

B. The residents of Teotihuacán were sophisticated toolmakers.

C. The residents of Teotihuacán traded obsidian with the Olmecs as early as 400 B.C.

D. Some of the obsidian used by the Olmecs came from the area around Teotihuacán.


Question 11 of 14:Select the TWO answer choices that are mentioned in paragraph 5 as being features of Teotihuacán that may have attracted immigrants to the city. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

A. The prosperity of the elite

B. Plenty of available housing

C. Opportunities for well-paid agricultural employment

D. The presence of one or more religious shrines


Question 12 of 14:In paragraph 6, the author discusses “The thriving obsidian operation ” in order to

A. explain why manufacturing was the main industry of Teotihuacán

B. give an example of an industry that took very little time to develop in Teotihuacán

C. Illustrate how several factors influenced each other to make Teotihuacán a powerful and wealthy city

D. explain how a successful industry can be a source of wealth and a source of conflict at the same time


Question 13 of 14:Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.Where would the sentence best fit?


In fact, artifacts and pottery from Teotihuacán have been discovered in sites as far away as the Mayan lowlands, the Guatemalan highlands, northern Mexico, and the Gulf Coast of Mexico..


Question 14 of 14:Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Teotihuacán was a highly developed city in Mesoamerica that reached its peak between about A.D.150 and 700.

A.The number and sophistication of the architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacan indicate the existence of centralized planning and control.

B.Teotihuacán may have developed its own specific local religion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by the city’s great prosperity.

C.As a result of its large number of religious shrines, by the first century A.D., Teotihuacan become the most influential religious center in all of Mesoamerica.

D.Several factors may account for Teotihuacán’s extraordinary development, including its location, rich natural resources, irrigation potential, intelligent elite, and the misfortune of rival communities.

E.In many important areas, from the obsidian industry to religious tourism, Teotihuacán’s success and prosperity typified the classic positive feedback cycle.

F. Although many immigrants settled in Teotihuacán between A.D.150 and 700, the increasing threat of coerced labor discouraged further settlement and limited Teotihuacán’s population growth.



TPO8托福阅读Passage1The Rise of Teotihuacán解析

 

Question 1 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:massive: 大块的,大量的。A是古老的;B是认真的;C是非常大的;D是仔细地保护。所以C是正确答案。对应原文:It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings.本句一直在说T这个地方的设施,前面的形容词great/a large number of等等都在说这里的设施规模很大,所以massive应该与这些词的意思接近,A古老地B仔细地D保护的好的都不对。


Question 2 of 14

正确答案:B

题目解析:B EXCEPT题,排除法。A的streets定位至倒数第三句,正确,不选;B的administrative centers定位至倒数第三句,原文说有一个中心,没说很多,所以B错,选;C的workshops定位至倒数第三句,正确,不选;D的apartment complex定位至倒数第三句,正确,不选。


Question 3 of 14

正确答案:A

题目解析:pinpoint: 找到,精确地瞄准。A是精准地识别;B是提出论点;C是描述;D是理解。所以A的identify precisely正确。对应原文:The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint—for instance, Teotihuacán’ s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’ s elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.原文中的破折号之后给出了很多例子,之前说其他因素起到的作用很难pinpoint,后文的例子是可能的作用,所以应该是想确定到底是哪个很难。后面的例子已经是描述了,所以难描述不对;同样,例子与理解无关,所以understood也不对;原文没有argument的意思,所以make an argument完全不靠谱。


Question 4 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:ingenuity: 心灵手巧,精巧。A是抱负;B是真诚;C是信念;D是聪明。所以D的cleverness正确。对应原文:The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint—for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’s elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.原文与ingenuity并列的词foresightedness的意思是先见之明,能与先见之明并列的只能是聪明了,所以D正确。


Question 5 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:C EXCEPT题,排除法。A的obsidian定位至第二句,正确,不选;B的extensive irrigation 定位至第二句,正确,不选;C的volcanic inactivity原文没有对应,所以C错,选;D的trade route定位至第二句,正确,不选。


Question 6 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:C 以volcanic eruptions of the late firsr millennium B.C.做关键词定位至第二段最后一句,这个是诸多factor当中的一个,而这些factor都是促进T城发展的,所以答案是C。也可以排除法,A无相关信息;第三段第三句说火山对T影响很大,没跟其他的比较,B错;第二段第二句说到了irrigation,但与问题无关,错。


Question 7 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D 以Cuicuilco做关键词定位至第三段第二句,说Cui这个地方受火山活动影响,农田被lava覆盖,接着一句就说Cui消除了,所以没有农田就没有Cui,答案是D。A与原文说反,应该是大的,不是小的;B的outside和原文中的in说反,错;C中的rapidly没说,错。


Question 8 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:C predominant: 主要的,占显著优势的。A是最激进的;B是多产的,物产丰富的;C是主要的;D是最早的。所以C的principal主要的正确。pre表在前,dominant意思是占优势的,所以合起来还是占优势之意。


Question 9 of 14

正确答案:A

题目解析:A 关键词已经划出,所在句说natural resourc给了这个地方edge,然后就用大量笔墨说obsidian黑曜石是这里一种很主要的资源,所以答案是存在commodity,A正确;注意B项颇具干扰性,使城市有优势的不是elite,是他们对于这种潜力的认识;C完全没提到;D说到了资源,但又说资源是在邻近的地方,也错。


Question 10 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D 以Olmec sites和recent research做关键词定位至倒数第二句,表明O获得一些obsidian是产自T的,很明显D正确。


Question 11 of 14

正确答案:AD

题目解析:D 以immigrants做关键词定位至第二句,说such success是吸引移民的原因,所以一定要看第一句,根据这句能选出答案A,但注意这道题必须选两个选项才有分数,所以还要继续找。第三句开始就是一个in addition,说明还有原因,说精英阶层会有意吸引移民,但这个答案没有,所以只能再往下,就看到答案D,所以A和D正确,另外两个都没说。


Question 12 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:功能目的题,往前看,前一句就是本段中心,说T的兴起是黑曜石开采和其他一系列因素互动的结果,所以C正确。A和B彻底没说,D中的conflict冲突没说,也不对。


Question 13 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D 四个地名是过渡点,说明正确插入点之前必须有说到位置的,而四个选项中只有D之前有Mesoamrica,所以答案只能是D。排除法也可以,A之后的代词it指第一句中的主语T,过渡紧密,不选;B之后的planning和metropolis对应B之前的一系列设施,过渡紧密,不选;C之后的moreover与之前过渡紧密,不选。


Question 14 of 14

正确答案:ADE

题目解析:A.D.E the number选项对应第一段倒数第二句,正确。Teothihuacan选项原文没说,不选。as a result选项错,第五段提到了shirine,但只说它能吸引外来人口,没说T因为这个变得很重要,不选。several选项对应第二段第一句,正确。in many选项对应第六段第一句,正确。 although选项原文没说,不选。


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