Official7托福阅读Passage3 Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】2019-01-22 12:02:31 发布 来源：雷哥托福 阅读量:2853
TPO7托福阅读Passage3 Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples文本+题目原文+答案解析
Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples
There is evidence of agriculture in Africa prior to 3000 B.C. It may have developed independently, but many scholars believe that the spread of agriculture and iron throughout Africa linked it to the major centers of the Near East and Mediterranean world. The drying up of what is now the Sahara desert had pushed many peoples to the south into sub-Sahara Africa. These peoples settled at first in scattered hunting-and-gathering bands, although in some places near lakes and rivers, people who fished, with a more secure food supply, lived in larger population concentrations. Agriculture seems to have reached these people from the Near East, since the first domesticated crops were millets and sorghums whose origins are not African but west Asian. Once the idea of planting diffused Africans began to develop their own crops, such as certain varieties of rice, and they demonstrated a continued receptiveness to new imports. The proposed areas of the domestication of African crops lie in a band that extends from Ethiopia across southern Sudan to West Africa. Subsequently, other crops, such as bananas, were introduced from Southeast Asia.
Livestock also came from outside Africa. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt (1780-1560 B.C.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa. Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300-200 B.C., there were trade routes across the Sahara. Horses were adopted by peoples of the West African savannah, and later their powerful cavalry forces allowed them to carve out large empires. Finally, the camel was introduced around the first century A.D. This was an important innovation, because the camel’s abilities to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into a still difficult, but more accessible, route of trade and communication.
Iron came from West Asia, although its routes of diffusion were somewhat different than those of agriculture. Most of Africa presents a curious case in which societies moved directly from a technology of stone to iron without passing through the intermediate stage of copper or bronzemetallurgy, although some early copper-working sites have been found in West Africa. Knowledge of iron making penetrated into the forest and savannahs of West Africa at roughly the same time that iron making was reaching Europe. Evidence of iron making has been found in Nigeria, Ghana, and Mali.
This technological shift cause profound changes in the complexity of African societies. Iron represented power. In West Africa the blacksmith who made tools and weapons had an important place in society, often with special religious powers and functions. Iron hoes, which made the land more productive, and iron weapons, which made the warrior more powerful, had symbolic meaning in a number of West Africa societies. Those who knew the secrets of making iron gained ritual and sometimes political power.
Unlike in the Americas, where metallurgy was a very late and limited development, Africans had iron from a relatively early date, developing ingenious furnaces to produce the high heat needed for production and to control the amount of air that reached the carbon and iron ore necessary for making iron. Much of Africa moved right into the Iron Age, taking the basic technology and adapting it to local conditions and resources.
The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria.[■] Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. [■] They spoke a language, proto-Bantu (“Bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent tongue of a language of a large number of Bantu languages still spoken throughout sub-Sahara Africa. Why and how these people spread out into central and southern Africa remains a mystery, but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements. [■] Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion.[■]
TPO7托福阅读Passage3Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples题目
Question 1 of 14： The word “diffused ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
B. was understood
Question 2 of 14：According to paragraph 1, why do researchers doubt that agriculture developed independently in Africa?
A. African lakes and rivers already provided enough food for people to survive without agriculture.
B. The earliest examples of cultivated plants discovered in Africa are native to Asia.
C. Africa’s native plants are very difficult to domesticate.
D. African communities were not large enough to support agriculture.
Question 3 of 14：In paragraph 1, what does the author imply about changes in the African environment during this time period?
A. The climate was becoming milder, allowing for a greater variety of crops to be grown.
B. Although periods of drying forced people south, they returned once their food supply was secure.
C. Population growth along rivers and lakes was dramatically decreasing the availability of fish.
D. A region that had once supported many people was becoming a desert where few could survive.
Question 4 of 14：According to paragraph 2, camels were important because they
A. were the first domesticated animal to be introduced to Africa
B. allowed the people of the West African savannahs to carve out large empires
C. helped African peoples defend themselves against Egyptian invaders
D. made it cheaper and easier to cross the Sahara
Question 5 of 14：According to paragraph 2, which of the following were subjects of rock paintings in the Sahara?
A. Horses and chariots
B. Sheep and goats
C. Hyksos invaders from Egypt
D. Camels and cattle
Question 6 of 14： What function does paragraph 3 serve in the organization of the passage as a whole?
A. It contrasts the development of iron technology in West Asia and West Africa.
B. It discusses a non-agricultural contribution to Africa from Asia.
C. It introduces evidence that a knowledge of copper working reached Africa and Europe at the same time.
D. It compares the rates at which iron technology developed in different parts of Africa.
Question 7 of 14: The word “profound ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 8 of 14: The word “ritual ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 9 of 14: According to paragraph 4, all of the following were social effects of the new metal technology in Africa EXCEPT:
A. Access to metal tools and weapons created greater social equality.
B. Metal weapons increased the power of warriors.
C. Iron tools helped increase the food supply.
D. Technical knowledge gave religious power to its holders.
Question 10 of 14: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. While American iron makers developed the latest furnaces, African iron makers continued using earlier techniques.
B. Africans produced iron much earlier than Americans, inventing technologically sophisticated heating systems.
C. Iron making developed earlier in Africa than in the Americas because of the ready availability of carbon and iron ore.
D. Both Africa and the Americas developed the capacity for making iron early, but African metallurgy developed at a slower rate.
Question 11 of 14: The word “fleeing ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. afraid of
B. displaced by
C. running away from
D. responding to
Question 12 of 14: Paragraph 6 mentions all of the following as possible causes of the “Bantu explosion ” EXCEPT
A. superior weapons
B. better hunting skills
C. peaceful migration
D. increased population
Question 13 of 14" Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?
These people had a significant linguistic impact on the continent as well..
A. Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara.
B. They spoke a language, proto-Bantu (“Bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent tongue of a language of a large number of Bantu languages still spoken throughout sub-Sahara Africa. Why and how these people spread out into central and southern Africa remains a mystery, but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements.
C. Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion.
Question 14 of 14: Direction: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Agriculture and iron working probably spread to Africa from neighboring regions.
A.Once Africans developed their own crops, they no longer borrowed from other regions.
B.The harshness of the African climate meant that agriculture could not develop until after the introduction of iron tools.
C.The use of livestock improved transportation and trade and allowed for new forms of political control.
D.As the Sahara expanded, the camel gained in importance, eventually coming to have religious significance.
E.The spread of iron working had far-reaching effects on social, economic, and political organization in Africa.
F. Today's Bantu-speaking peoples are descended from a technologically advanced people who spread throughout Africa.
TPO7托福阅读Passage3Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples解析
Question 1 of 14
题目解析：diffuse: 扩散。A是出现;B是被理解;C是传播，扩散;D是发展。根据词意，正确的是C选项。对应原文：Once the idea of planting diffused, Africans began to develop their own crops, such as certain varieties of rice, and they demonstrated a continued receptiveness to new imports.前一句说农业是从近东过来的，那些作物都不是非洲的，接着就说一旦种植的idea怎么了非洲，非洲人开始了自己研发自己的作物。不是非洲的东西到了非洲，所以是扩散或者蔓延，不是单纯的出现，emerge不对;只理解idea肯定不行，要去做，understood不对;原文的idea没有更深入一步的意思，develop不对。
Question 2 of 14
题目解析：B 以developed independently和agriculture做关键词定位至第二句，但这句话只说非洲的农业与近东以及地中海地区相关，如果知道近东是亚洲的一部分和非洲的一部分的总称的话，答案就出来了，B正确;不知道的话往后看，下面还有一句提到了agriculture，就是第五句说农业是从亚洲来的，因为那些作物不是非洲原产的，所以答案是B
Question 3 of 14
题目解析：D, 以changes of African environment做关键词定位至原文第三句，注意题目中的关键词原文没有，但原文中的drying up of what is now the Sahara desert就是一个环境变化。说干旱把这些人赶到了撒哈拉以南地区，也就是说这个变化使得他们原来住的地方不能住了，所以D正确;A说气候变得温和，与原文相反;B说他们回到原来的地方，与原文说的定居在南部非洲相反;C没有相关信息
Question 4 of 14
Question 5 of 14
题目解析：以rock painting做关键词定位至第四句：Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300-200 B.C., there were trade routes across the Sahara. 这里说了horse和chariot被用来穿越沙漠，所以很明显答案是A。
Question 6 of 14
Question 7 of 14
题目解析：profound: 深刻的，意义深远的。A是吸引人的;B是深远的，广泛的;C是必须的;D是暂时的。所以B的far-reaching是正确答案。对应原文：This technological shift cause profound changes in the complexity of African societies. Iron represented power.第三段整个在说铁是怎么到非洲的，第四段一开头就说这个技术给非洲带来什么样的变化，本篇文章的题目就与铁有关，肯定铁是很重要的，而且从后文也能看出来这些变化很重要，影响是深远的，所以temporary一定不对，fanscinating迷人的变化和necessary必要的变化从后文没法看出来，所以都不对。
Question 8 of 14
题目解析：ritual: 仪式的，常规的。A是军事的;B是物理的，身体的;C是仪式的;D是永久的。所以C的ceremonial正确。对应原文：Those who knew the secrets of making iron gained ritual and sometimes political power.原句说那些懂得制铁工艺的人会获得什么权利，有时候甚至会获得政治上的权利，永久的和身体的，自然的都不能和政治并列，所以B的physical跟D的permanent错;MS军事和政治是能并列的，但之前有提到symbolic meaning，叫象征意义，所以C更合适。
Question 9 of 14
题目解析：A EXCEPT题，排除法，A没说，所以选;B的warriors在倒数第二句，正确，不选;C中的food supply虽然原文没有，但原文倒数第二句有land more productive，说明这个选项对，不选;D的religious power在最后一句，正确，不选
Question 10 of 14
Question 11 of 14
题目解析：flee: 逃跑。A是害怕;B是被取代;C是逃离;D是反应。所以C正确。对应原文：Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. 原句说迁徙是由人口增加导致的，然后这些人是为怎么样撒哈拉沙漠的干旱才迁移的，逃避是正确意思;因为已经干了，所以不是害怕，afraid of不对;人不能被干旱替代，所以displace by 不对;respond to答复完全不靠谱。
Question 12 of 14
题目解析：A在倒数第二句：Why and how..., but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements. A正确，不选;B错，选，因为原文只说武器能够帮他们战胜打猎的对手，没说他们打猎的技术好;C和D都在最后一句，正确，不选：Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion.
Question 13 of 14
题目解析：B，两个过渡点，these peoples和linguistic impact。these peoples说明前面必须得有peoples，这点A/B/C都符合;linguistic说明必须说到语言， B/C可能;而且B点之后的内容是解释待插入句的，所以应该插入B而非C。
Question 14 of 14
题目解析：CEF Once选项原文没说，不选 The harshness选项原文没说，不选 The control选项对应原文第二段，正确 As选项文没说，注意有宗教意义的不是骆驼，不选 The spread选项对应原文第四段第一句，正确 Today选项对应原文第六段，正确