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TPO3托福阅读Passage1 Architecture原文文本+题目原文+答案解析【雷哥托福】

2019-01-09 15:50:23 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:2712

TPO3托福阅读Passage1  Architecture原文文本+题目原文+答案解析

Architecture

Architecture is the art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for practical and symbolic purposes. Because architecture grows out of human needs and aspirations, it clearly communicates cultural values. Of all the visual arts, architecture affects our lives most directly for it determines the character of the human environment in major ways.

Architecture is a three-dimensional form. It utilizes space, mass, texture, line, light, and color. To be architecture, a building must achieve a working harmony with a variety of elements. Humans instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life. It is the work of architects to create buildings that are not simply constructions but also offer inspiration and delight. Buildings contribute to human life when they provide shelter, enrich space, complement their site, suit the climate, and are economically feasible. The client who pays for the building and defines its function is an important member of the architectural team. The mediocre design of many contemporary buildings can be traced to both clients and architects.

In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them—even while building materials have changed dramatically. The world’s architectural structures have also been devised in relation to the objective limitations of materials. Structures can be analyzed in terms of how they deal with downward forces created by gravity. They are designed to withstand the forces of compression (pushing together), tension (pulling apart), bending, or a combination of these in different parts of the structure.

Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material. Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.

Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body: a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning. Of course in early architecture—such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one.

Much of the world’s great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence, and availability. In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon. Some of the world’s finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures. Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries.

 

TPO3托福阅读Passage1题目

Question 1 of 14

According to paragraph 1, all of the following statements about architecture are true EXCEPT:

A. Architecture is visual art..

B. Architecture reflects the cultural values of its creators..

C. Architecture has both artistic and scientific dimensions..

D. Architecture has an indirect effect on life..


Question 2 of 14

The word “feasible ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. in existence.

B. without question.

C. achievable.

D. most likely.


Question 3 of 14

The word “enhance ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. protect.

B. improve.

C. organize.

D. match.


Question 4 of 14

Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Unchanging physical laws have limited the size and strength of buildings that can be made with materials discovered long ago..

B. Building materials have changed in order to increase architectural size and strength, but physical laws of structure have not changed..

C. When people first started to build, the structural methods used to provide strength and size were inadequate because they were not based on physical laws..

D. Unlike building materials, the methods of support used in architecture have not changed over time because they are based on physical laws..


Question 5 of 14

The word “devised ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. combined.

B. created.

C. introduced.

D. suggested.


Question 6 of 14

The word “integral ” is closest in meaning to

A. essential.

B. variable.

C. practical.

D. independent.


Question 7 of 14

According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about materials used in the construction of buildings?

A. Because new building materials are hard to find, construction techniques have changed very little from past generations..

B. The availability of suitable building materials no longer limits the types of structures that may be built..

C. The primary building materials that are available today are wood, stone, and brick..

D. Architects in earlier times did not have enough building materials to enclose large spaces..


Question 8 of 14

In paragraph 4, what does the author imply about modern buildings?

A. They occupy much less space than buildings constructed one hundred years ago..

B. They are not very different from the building of a few generations ago..

C. They weigh less in relation to their size than buildings constructed one hundred years ago..

D. They take a long time to build as a result of their complex construction methods..


Question 9 of 14

Which of the following correctly characterizes the relationship between the human body and architecture that is described in paragraph 5?

A. Complex equipment inside buildings is the one element in modern architecture that resembles a component of the human body..

B. The components in early buildings were similar to three particular elements of the human body..

C. Modern buildings have components that are as likely to change as the human body is..

D. In general, modern buildings more closely resemble the human body than earlier buildings do..


Question 10 of 14

The word “arduous ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. difficult.

B. necessary.

C. skilled.

D. shared.


Question 11 of 14

Why does the author include a description of how the “doorways and windows ” of Machu Picchu were constructed?

A. To indicate that the combined skeletons and skins of the stone buildings of Machu Picchu were similar to igloos and adobe structures.

B. To indicate the different kinds of stones that had to be cut to build Machu Picchu.

C. To provide an illustration of the kind of construction that was required before arches were invented.

D. To explain how ancient builders reduced the amount of time necessary to construct buildings from stone.


Question 12 of 14

According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is true of the arch?

A. The Romans were the first people to use the stone arch..

B. The invention of the arch allowed new architectural forms to be developed..

C. The arch worked by distributing the structural load of a building toward the center of the arch..

D. The Romans followed earlier practices in their use of arches..


Question 13 of 14

Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

However, some modern architectural designs, such as those using folded plates of concreter or air-inflated structures, are again unifying skeleton and skin..

A.Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.

B.Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body: a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems.

C.The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning.

D.Of course in early architecture—such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one.


Question 14 of 14

Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Architecture uses forms and space to express cultural values. .

A.Architects seek to create buildings that are both visually appealing and well suited for human use..

B.Over the course of the history of building, innovations in material and methods of construction have given architects ever greater freedom to express themselves..

C.Throughout history buildings have been constructed like human bodies, needing distinct “organ” systems in order to function..

D.Both clients and architects are responsible for the mediocre designs of some modern buildings..

E.Modern buildings tend to lack the beauty of ancient stone buildings such as those of Machu Picchu..

F.The discovery and use of the arch typifies the way in which architecture advances by developing more efficient types of structures..

 

TPO3托福阅读Passage1解析

Question 1 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D EXCEPT题排除法,以visual art做关键词定位至本段最后一句,A对,不选;D选项与A选项在同一句,indirect effect和directly的原文说反,错,选: Of all the visual arts, architecture affects our lives most directly for it determines the character of the human environment in major ways.以cultural values做关键词定位至第二句,B对,不选: Because architecture grows out of human needs and aspirations, it clearly communicates cultural values.以artistic and scientific dimensions做关键词定位至第一句,C对,不选: Architecture is the art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for practical and symbolic purposes.


Question 2 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:C, feasible: 可行的。A是现存的;B是毫无疑问;C是可完成的;D是最有可能。根据词意,正确答案是C。对应原文Buildings contribute to human life when they provide shelter, enrich space, complement their site, suit the climate, and are economically feasible.原文说了建筑的若干优点,比如提供遮风避雨的场所,丰富了空间,经济上怎么样,肯定是个正面的词,A存在中性,错;B没有问题,虽然是正面但太过,不选,C正确,D非常可能虽然正面,但程度不足,不选。


Question 3 of 14

正确答案:B

题目解析:B, enhance: 增加、提高。对应B选项的improve提高。A是保护;C是组织;D是匹配。A选项为保护;C选项为组织;D选项为匹配。对应原文Humans instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life.这句话说:人们本能的寻求可以庇护和enhance他们生活方式的结构。在这句话中enhance和庇护并列,将4个选项代入后发现,A排除,和shelter意思重复,不选;CD代入后和way of life的搭配关系不合适;B最符合这个并列结构,且代入后语义连贯,搭配也合适。


Question 4 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D In order for只是一个表目的的状语,不是非常重要,暂时放弃不看;同时because那部分插入语不看。整个句子就变成了:建筑师们采用的方法是不变的,尽管建筑材料发生了很大变化。主要的逻辑就是转折。A没说原文的建筑材料发生了很大变化,而且law没有限制size and strength,所以完全不对;B错在in order的那个状语部分,increase原文没说;C说not based on physical laws与原文相反,错;D正确。


Question 5 of 14

正确答案:B

题目解析:B devise: 设计,发明。A是结合;B是创造,建立;C是引入;D是建议。根据词意,B是正确答案。对应原文The world’s architectural structures have also been devised in relation to the objective limitations of materials.所在句说全世界的建筑也要怎么样根据建筑材料的限制,因为有also,所以是接着前一句的,前句在上题中已经分析过了,说建筑师为了达到要求采用了多种方法,说明建筑的产生应该是一个从无到有的过程,所以B选项create最合适。


Question 6 of 14

正确答案:A

题目解析:A integral: 完整的,必须的。A是基本的,必要的;B是易变的;C是实际的,实用的;D是独立的。根据词意,A正确对应原文Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures.原文说建筑材料和建筑方法是建筑什么样的部分,代入选项也知道应该是A重要的部分,B可变的C实际的都不靠谱,D独立的虽然意思基本说的通,但明显违反原文语境,建筑材料和方法应该是互相影响的,不能独立。


Question 7 of 14

正确答案:B

题目解析:B整段大量篇幅在讨论building material,建议用排除法。A的new building material定位到第四句,但是A选项的hard to find明显和这句话矛盾,错误;同样B选项也定位到这一句,no long limits和这句话吻合,正确,选B: Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. C的三种材料定位到第三句的列举部分,但很明显,他们应该是以前的主要建筑材料,不是现在。In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. D没说选项在原文没有提及,看上去长得像倒数第二句,但意思不同。


Question 8 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:C以modern buildings做关键词定位至最后一句的buildings built now: Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.说比较现在和一百年前大小相似的建筑的重量我们就能发现建筑技术所取得的进步,也就是以前的重现在的轻,所以答案是C,其他的都没说。


Question 9 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D本段将建筑结构与人体的结构进行了比较,发现三个共同点。排除法,A以equipment做关键词定位至第一句的最后半句,equipment像的应该是vital organs and systems,不是一个component: Modern architectural forms generally..., and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. B以early building做关键词定位至文章最后一句,skeleton和skin是一样的,所以和人不同: Of course in early architecture—such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one. C的change原文没说; D正确因为原文说现代建筑像人体(和A选项一样,对应第一句),以前的建筑的skeleton和skin是一个(和B一样对应最后一句),所以现代建筑比之前的建筑更像人体。


Question 10 of 14

正确答案:A

题目解析:A arduous: 艰巨的,困难的。A是困难的;B是必要的;C是熟练的,有技能的;D是共享的。根据词意,A选项正确。对应原文In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon.原文说过去整个城市都是靠切割和堆积石头搞定的,这个任务肯定是比较困难的,而代入原文的话似乎有技巧的和有必要的也是靠谱的,但D分享的一定不对,如果说切割是需要技巧的话,堆积应该是不需要的,注意不要联想。堆积和切割石头一定是造城市的必要任务么?可以用木头和其他的建筑材料,所以necessary太偏了,正确答案difficult。


Question 11 of 14

正确答案:C

题目解析:功能目的题,读doorways and windows所在的一句话,说门窗是通过把承的石头横梁放在space上面形成的,读前一句的时候发现也是个例子,所以不是答案,往下句看: A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created.说想克服石头带给建筑的障碍,必须有一个新发明。按照原文,门窗必须在石梁支撑的open space上才可以,这是在new invention出现之前的解决方法,所以答案是C。


Question 12 of 14

正确答案:B

题目解析:B,以arch为关键词定位至that invention was the arch句,接上题看到的那句: A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments.想克服石头带给建筑的障碍,必须有一个新发明,这个发明就是arch,所以说arch的出现使得其他建筑方法成为可能,B正确。罗马人是第一个把arch广泛用在地上建筑的,不是第一个用arch的,A错,也没follow前人的方法,D错;是把压力分散,divert,不是往中点集中,C说反。


Question 13 of 14

正确答案:D

题目解析:D however和again unifying都说明正确插入点之前必须说过把skeleton and skin合起来,这才能呼应插入句的again(再一次),所以A和B不对;C之后的such equipment指代C之前的内容,过渡紧密,不适合插入句子;所以D是正确答案,often one和again呼应。


Question 14 of 14

正确答案:ABF

题目解析:A.B.F Architects选项对应全文首段首句,正确。Over选项对应第四段第三句和第三段首句,正确。Throughout选项与第五段首句相反,错。Both选项是细节,不选。Modern选项错,因为原文没说现代的建筑不好看,不选。The discovery选项第六段最后一句,正确。


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