关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

TPO54托福阅读passage1 The Commercialization of Lumber 原文文本【雷哥托福】

2018-09-26 10:30:41 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:2734

本文提供的内容是托福tpo雷哥托福整理TPO54阅读passage1 The Commercialization of Lumber 原文文本,想要获得完整版TPO54的真题答案解析,添加小助手微信号:lgtoefl666 获取,或者同学们可以来雷哥托福官网在线模考练习。

获取真题答案及解析请点击:TPO54阅读passage1 The Commercialization of Lumber 真题题目及答案 

Passage1 

The Commercialization of Lumber 正文

In nineteenth-century America, practically everything that was built involved wood. Pine was especially attractive for building purposes.lt is durable and strong, yet soft enough to be easily worked with even the simplest of hand tools.lt also floats nicely on water, which allowed it to be transported to distant markets across the nation. The central and northern reaches of the Great Lakes  states  Michigan,  Wisconsin, and Minnesota—all contained extensive pine forests as well as many large rivers for floating logs into  the  Great Lakes, from where  they were transported nationwide. By 1860, the settlement of the American West along with timber shortages  in  the East converged with ever-widening impact on the pine forests of the Great Lakes states. Over the next 30 years, lumbering became a full-fledged enterprise in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Newly formed  lumbering  corporations  bought up huge tracts of pineland and set about systematically cutting the trees. Both the colonists and the later industrialists saw timber as a commodity, but the latter group adopted a far more thorough and calculating approach to removing trees. In this sense, what happened between 1860 and 1890 represented a significant break with the past. No longer were farmers in search of  extra  income  the main source for shingles, firewood, and other wood products. By the 1870s, farmers and city dwellers alike purchased forest products from large manufacturing companies located in the Great Lakes states rather than chopping wood themselves or buying it locally.

The commercialization of lumbering was in part the product of technological change. The early, thick saw blades tended to waste a large quantity of wood, with perhaps as much as a third of the log left behind on the floor as sawdust or scrap. In the 1870s, however, the British-invented band saw, with its thinner blade, became standard issue in the Great Lakes states' lumber factories. Meanwhile, the rise of steam-powered mills streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber Steam  helped to  automate a variety of tasks, from cutting to the carrying away of waste. Mills also employed steam to heat log ponds, preventing them from freezing and making possible year-round lumber production.

For industrial lumbering to succeed, a way had to be found to neutralize the  effects of the seasons on production. Traditionally, cutting took place in the winter, when snow and ice made it easier to drag logs on sleds or sleighs to the banks of streams. Once the streams and lakes thawed, workers rafted the logs to mills, where they were cut into lumber in the summer. ■If nature did not cooperate if the winter proved dry and warm, if the spring thaw was delayed—production would suffer. To counter the effects of climate on lumber production, loggers experimented with a variety of techniques for transporting trees out of the woods. ■In the 1870s, loggers in the Great Lakes states began sprinkling water on sleigh  roads,  giving  them an artificial ice coating to facilitate travel. ■The ice reduced the friction and allowed workers to move larger and heavier loads. ■

But all the sprinkling in the world would not save a logger from  the  threat  of  a warm winter. Without snow the sleigh roads turned to mud. In the 1870s, a set of snowless winters left lumber companies to ponder ways of liberating themselves from the seasons. Railroads were one possibility. At first, the remoteness of the pine forests discouraged common carriers from laying track. But increasing  lumber prices in the late 1870s combined with periodic warm, dry winters  compelled loggers to turn to iron rails. By 1887, 89 logging railroads crisscrossed Michigan, transforming logging from a winter activity into a year-round one.

Once the logs arrived at a river, the trip downstream to a mill could be a long and tortuous one. Logjams (buildups of logs that prevent logs from  moving downstream) were common—at times stretching for 10 miles and became  even more frequent as pressure on the northern Midwest pinelands increased in the 1860s. To help keep the logs moving efficiently, barriers called booms (essentially a chain of  floating logs) were constructed to control the direction of the timber.  By  the 1870s, lumber companies existed in all the major logging areas of the northern Midwest.


获取题目及答案解析请点击:TPO54托福阅读passage1 The Commercialization of Lumber真题题目及答案


分享:

发表评价

游客

●热门话题

  • 托福考试报名
  • 托福备考资料
  • 托福报名流程
  • 托福机经预测
  • 托福考试时间
  • 托福转考
  • 托福报名费用
  • 托福培训
  • 托福在线课程

更多托福最新咨询及福利,关注公众号,雷哥托福(ID:toeflgo)

雷哥托福toeflgo

托福备考效率不高?托福干货天天免费大放送;

备考提分有瓶颈?口语陪练和写作精批机会领取!

每周托福提分训练营、精品公开课、单词团等你啦~

加我,免费获取资料啦~

雷哥托福-Cassie(lgtoefl666)




联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

预约托福考试规划师