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TPO52托福阅读passage3:Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe 原文文本【雷哥托福】

2018-09-25 16:38:22 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:2673

本文提供的内容是托福tpo52雷哥托福整理TPO52阅读passage3:Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe原文文本+真题答案,想要获得完整版TPO52的真题答案解析,添加小助手微信:ybnt110获取,或者同学们可以来雷哥托福官网在线模考练习。

 

第三篇 Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe

 

Because of industrialization, but also because of a vast increase in agricultural output without which industrialization would have been impossible, Western Europeans by the latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher standards of living and longer, healthier lives than most of the world’s peoples. In Europe as a whole, the population rose from 188 million in 1800 to 400 million in 1900. By 1900, virtually every area of Europe had contributed to the tremendous surge of population, but each major region was at a different stage of demographic change. Improvements in the food supply continued trends that had started in the late seventeenth century. New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand. Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause of economic recessions until 1850, and they could lead to localized famine as well. A major potato blight (disease) in 1846-1847 led to the deaths of at least one million persons in Ireland and the emigration of another million, and Ireland never recovered the population levels the potato had sustained to that point. Bad grain harvests at the same time led to increased hardship throughout much of Europe.

 

After 1850, however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished. Two developments were crucial. First, the application of science and new technology to agriculture increased. Led by German universities, increasing research was devoted to improving seeds, developing chemical fertilizers, and advancing livestock. After 1861, with the development of land-grant universities in the United States that had huge agricultural programs, American crop-production research added to this mix. Mechanization included the use of horse-drawn harvesters and seed drills, many developed initially in the United States. It also included mechanical cream separators and other food-processing devices that improved supply.

 

The second development involved industrially based transportation. With trains and steam shipping, it became possible to move foods to needy regions within Western Europe quickly. Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past. Many Western European countries, headed by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source, but also from the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods (particularly after 1870), was fundamental to these developments.

 

Europe's population growth included one additional innovation by the nineteenth century: it combined with rapid urbanization. More and more Western Europeans moved from countryside to city, and big cities grew most rapidly of all. By 1850, over half of all the people in England lived in cities, a first in human history. In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable growing numbers of people pressed available resources on the land, even when farmwork was combined with a bit of manufacturing, so people crowded into cities seeking work or other resources. Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin; cities had maintained population only through steady in-migration. Thus rapid urbanization should have reduced overall population growth, but by the middle of the nineteenth century this was no longer the case. Urban death rates remained high, particularly in the lower-class slums, but they began to decline rapidly.

 

The greater reliability of food supplies was a factor in the decline of urban death rates. Even more important were the gains in urban sanitation, as well as measures such as inspection of housing. Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death rates and to urge remediation. Even before the discovery of germs, beliefs that disease spread by "miasmas" (noxious forms of bad air) prompted attention to sewers and open garbage; Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s. Gradually, public health provisions began to cut into customary urban mortality rates. By 1900, in some parts of  Western Europe life expectancy in the cities began  to surpass that of the rural areas. Industrial societies had figured out ways to combine large and growing cities with population growth, a development that would soon spread to other parts of the world.

 

题目

 

1.According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about Europe in the nineteenth century?

A.A large increase in food production led to industrialization..

B.Population changes occurred at the same pace in the major regions..

C.The standard of living rose to the level of that in most parts of the world..

D.The tremendous rise in population led to greater agricultural output in every region..

 

2.According to paragraph 2, which of the following caused the food supply to increase in most of Western Europe during the nineteenth century?

A.Replacement of seventeenth-century farming techniques with more modern ones.

B.Improved grain harvests in most European countries.

C.Reduced demand for food as a result of a decreased population.

D.Use of new land to grow crops.

 

3.In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the potato blight that occurred in Ireland?

A.To identify a crop that was more successful in the United States than it was in Western Europe.

B.To support a claim about regional agricultural failures.

C.To give an example of a problematic trend that had started in the late

 

seventeenth century.

D. To provide evidence that many countries in Europe experienced a loss of population in the nineteenth century.

 

4.The phrase "kept pace with" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.exceeded.

B.matched the increase in.

C.increased the rate of.

D.caused.

 

5.According to paragraph 3, all of the following factors helped the supply of food meet the needs of a growing population EXCEPT

A.increased agricultural research in Germany.

B.introduction of new crops.

C.development of food-processing devices.

D.agricultural programs in universities in the United States.

 

6.The word "capacity" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.variety of goods.

B.distance.

C.reliability.

D.available storage space.

 

7.According to paragraph 4, famine became less of a problem in Western Europe during the nineteenth century because of

 

A.the decline of malnutrition.

B.the construction of more food-storage facilities.

C.faster means of transportation.

D.improved agricultural methods in Eastern Europe.

 

8.The word "inevitable" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.unexplainable.

B.undesirable.

C.unavoidable.

D.unpredictable.

 

9.According to paragraph 5, which of the following factors led to rapid urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century?

A.The destruction of many farms due to bad harvests.

B.The reduction in the amount of good-quality farmland.

C.The rise in death rates in the countryside.

D.The lack of jobs in the countryside.

 

10.The word "surpass" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.exceed.

B.influence.

C.equal.

D.differ from.

 

11.Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about underground sewers?

A.They became common in most of Western Europe in the 1830s..

B.They helped reduce deaths caused by disease in cities..

C.They led to the discovery that disease could be caused by germs..

D.They encouraged people to leave rural areas and move to the cities..

 

12.Paragraph 6 mentions all of the following as factors that contributed  to  the rapid decline of urban death rates EXCEPT

A.the greater reliability of food supplies.

B.improvements in sanitation.

C.advances in the treatment of disease.

D.provisions for inspecting houses.

 

13. Look at the four squares [[■]] to add the sentence to the passage. . Such individual efforts had substantial, concrete effects on society..

 

14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE  answer  choices  that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2  points.  Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it. To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT. Western Europe experienced a tremendous growth in population in the nineteenth century.

A.Agricultural failures became less damaging after 1850 because of advances in science and technology as well as improvements in the transportation and preservation of foods..

B.The development of better food-processing technologies allowed many Western European countries to grow their own food without having to import it from other countries..

C.High death rates in the cities began to decline as food supplies became more reliable and as reformers prompted improvements in sanitation and housing..

D.Although agricultural failures led to deaths and emigration  population  levels were restored within a short time..

E.As the population in the countryside began increasing faster than the supply of food and living space, people began moving to the cities in  search  of  jobs  and  other resources..

F.The improvements in crop-growing methods created new jobs on the farms, causing people from the overcrowded cities to move to the countryside to fill those jobs..

 

答案及解析

 

1.正确答案:A

题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。题目问:关于 19 世纪的欧洲下面哪一项是正确的? A 选项:食物产量的增长导致了工业化。正确,因为第一段第一句话中说“a vast increase in agricultural output without which industrialization would have been impossible”,说明农业产出是工业化的先决条件,故 A 选项为正确答案。 B 选项:主要地区的人口变化节奏一致。错误,对应第一段最后一句中说的“but  each  major  region  was  at  a  different  stage  of demographic  change”,所以 B 选项与原文完全矛盾,排除。  C 选项:生活水平提高到和世界其他地方一样的水平。错误,对应第一段第一句话中说的“Western Europeans by the latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher standards of living and longer, healthier  lives  than  most  of the  world’s peoples.”通过这个比较级可以明显看出欧洲人民的生活水平更高,故 C 排除。 D 选项:人口的大量增长导致了各个地区农业产值的增长。根据第一段内容可知,是农业的发展,推动了人口增长。故 D 选项逻辑颠倒。排除。

 

2.正确答案:D 题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。题目问 19 世纪西欧粮食产量增长的原因是什么?对应第二段第二句话“New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand.”这句话说人们开辟新的土地用来耕种,种植本土作物的规模在不断扩大。D 选项:开辟新土地种植农作物,符合文意,故为正确答案。 A 选项:将 17 世纪的农场技术换成更先进的设备。错误,第二段只有第一句提到 17 世纪,“Improvements  in  the  food  supply  continued  trends  that  had  started  in  the late seventeenth century.”但这句话说的是食品供应的提升延续了自 17 世纪末开始的趋势,并没有提到技术,故 A 选项未提及,排除。 B 选项:欧洲大部分地区粮食增收。题目问的就是 19 世纪西欧粮食产量增长的原因是什么?而 B 选项又把题目复述了一遍,答非所问,故排除。 C 选项:由于人口下降,食品需求也下降了。错误,因为 C 选项属于农业失败所造成的结果,是第二段后半段的主要内容,与本题无关,属于无关干扰信息,故 C 选项排除。

 

3.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为功能目的题。题目问:作者为什么要提到马铃薯晚疫病?例子肯定是为了支持或说明观点,所以我们往前找到观点句“Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause of economic recessions until 1850, and they could lead to localized famine as well.”作者举“potato blight”的例子是为了说明农业失败所造成的 后果。故 B 选项正确。 A  选项:说明一种农作物在美国比在西欧的种植更加成功。错误, 土豆的例子不是为了说明种植农作物成功,相反,这是一次农业的失败,造成了很多人的死  亡,故 A 选项排除。 C 选项:举例说明从 17 世纪末开始的趋势是有问题的。第三段开头的 这 句 话 “ Improvements in the food supply continued trends that had started in the late seventeenth century.”只是为了说明食品供应自 17 世纪末以来一直在提升。而 “potato  blight”是农业失败的例子,与 17 世纪以来的食品供应趋势无关,故 C 选项排 除。D 选项:提供证据证明欧洲的很多国家在 19 世纪人口下降。人口下降是“potato blight”导致的农业失败所造成的后果,是“potato  blight”导致了“the  loss  of  population”, 它并不是用来证明人口下降,所以 D 选项逻辑错误,排除。

 

4.正确答案:B

题目解析:

本题为词汇题。“kept pace with”的意思是“跟上”,我们把词汇带到原文中看,“After 1850, however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished.”的意思是“然而,1850 年后,食物的增加慢慢跟上了人口增长的节奏,尽管贫困阶层仍然营养不良。”下面我们来看选项: A 选项:exceeded,意思是“超过”,意思不符,故排除。  B 选项:matched the increase

in,  意思是“与……的增长相匹配”,意思符合,故为正确答案。 C 选项:increased the rate

of,  意思是“增加……率”,意思不符,故排除。  D  选项:caused,意思是“造成,导致”,意思不符,故排除。

 

5.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为否定事实信息题。我们根据选项中的关键词定位,用排除法做题。 A 选项:德国的农业研究。定位到第三段第 4 句“Led by German universities, increasing research was devoted to improving seeds, developing chemical fertilizers, and advancing livestock.”  A  选项原文中有提及,故排除。  B  选项:引入新农作物。该信息在第三段未提及,故为正确答案。  C  选项:食品加工设备的发展。定位到第三段最后一句“It  also included mechanical cream separators and other food-processing devices that improved supply.”提到了机械奶油分离器和其他提升供应水平的食品加工设备,故 C 选项原文中有提及,排除。 D 选项:美国大学的农业项目。对应这句话“After 1861, with the development of land-grant universities in the United States that had huge agricultural programs, American crop-production research added to this mix.”这句中提到了赠地大学有庞大的农业项目,故 D 选项符合原文,排除。

 

6.正确答案:D 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。capacity 的意思是“容量;性能”,把词汇带到原文中看,“Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods (particularly after 1870), was fundamental to these

developments.”这句话的意思是“能够提高运输速度和运输容量的蒸汽船,以及装罐和冷藏食物的新工艺(特别是在 1870 年以后),都为这些发展奠定了基础。”下面,我们来看选项: A 选项:variety of goods,意思是“商品的种类”,意思不符,排除。B 选项:distance,意思是“距离”,意思不符,故排除。  C 选项:reliability,意思是“可靠性”,意思不符,故排除。  D 选项:available  storage  space,意思是“可以用来存储的地方”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

 

7.正确答案:C 题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。第四段主要描述交通运输的影响。我们根据题干中的关键词“famine”定位到第 3 句“  Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past.”再往前看,前面一句话说,通过火车和蒸汽船运输,人们可以迅速地将食物运输到西欧贫困地区。这说明交通运输的进步可以解决饥荒的问题,所以 C 选项正确。 A 选项:营养不良的减少。“ malnutrition ” 出现在这句话的括号内容里“ Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past.”是为了说明饥荒和营养不良是两个不同的概念,文中并没有提及营养不良情况的减少,故 A 选项为无关信息,排除。 B 选项:建立更多的存储设施。第四段整段都没提及该信息,故排除。 D 选项:东欧的农业方式进步。错误,根据关键词“Eastern Europe”我们找到这句话“Many Western European countries, headed by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source, but also……”这句话其实是在说明交通运输有利于粮食的进口,可以从东欧进口粮食,但并没有提及东欧农业方式的进步,故 D 选项排除。

 

8.正确答案:C 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。“inevitable”的意思是“不可避免的”。单词在文中所在句“In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable.”的意思是“从某种意义上说,这种模式看似是不可避免的。”下面我们来看选项:  A 选项:unexplainable,意思是“无法解释的”,意思不符,故排除。

B 选项:undesirable,意思是“不受欢迎的”,  意思不符,故排除。 C 选项:unavoidable,意思是“不可避免的”,意思符合,故为正确答案。  D 选项:unpredictable,意思是“无法预测的”,意思不符,故排除。

 

9.正确答案:D 题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。题目问:导致 19 世纪上半叶,快速城市化进程的原因是什么?根据关键词“first half of the nineteenth century”,定位到这句话“By 1850, over half of all the people in England lived in cities, a first in human history.”而后面紧接着的一句话就给出了原因,“In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable:growing numbers of people pressed available resources on the land, even when farmwork was combined with a bit   of   manufacturing,   so   people   crowded   into   cities   seeking   work   or   other

resources.”这种快速的城市化进程是不可避免的:因为人口变得越来越多了,很多的人压榨一片土地上一切可以利用的资源,显然资源是不够用的,所以人们只能涌入城市寻找工作或其他资源。故这里 D 选项正确。 A 选项:因为粮食歉收导致很多农场被破坏。这属于无中生有的信息,直接排除。 B 选项:高质量的农耕用地的减少。本段中并没有提到农耕用地的减少,只提到“even when farmwork was combined with a bit of manufacturing”,即使农耕与制造业相结合时,乡村的资源还是不能满足人口需求。故 B 选项未提及,排除。

C 选项:乡村人口死亡率的上升。错误,因为文中提到“Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin”,这句话说传统意义上,城市的死亡率远远超过了农村,但是人们还是不断涌入农村。所以乡村人口死亡率在当时其实低于城市。故 C 选项与原文矛盾,排除。

 

10.正确答案:A 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。“surpass”的意思是“超过;优于”。单词在文中所在句“Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin”的意思是“然而,传统上来说,城市的死亡率远远超过了农村。”下面来看选项: A 选项:

exceed,意思是“超过”,意思符合,故为正确答案。  B 选项:influence,意思是“影响”,意思不符,故排除。  C 选项:equal,意思是“等于;比得上”,意思不符,故排除。  D 选项: differ from,意思是“与……不同”, 意思不符,故排除。

 

11.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为推断题。文中关于下水道的信息,以下哪一项推断是正确的?根据题干中的关键词“underground  sewers”定位到最后一段中这段内容“Even  before  the  discovery  of germs, beliefs that disease spread by "miasmas" (noxious forms of bad air) prompted attention to sewers and open garbage ; Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s.”这段话是在说,即使在细菌被发现之前,人们也已经意识到下水道的清洁和垃圾清理很重要,而查德威克还在英国引领了模范性的城市运动,要求对城市下水道进行改革。从第六段整体来看, “underground sewers”提高城市卫生设施的一个范例,而这有助于降低疾病发生率,从而降低人口死亡率。这道题是一个正向推理的过程,故这里 B 选项正确。 A 选项:19 世纪

30 年代下水道在西欧大部分地区很普及,但根据文意我们知道,当时查德威克还在英国引领了模范性的整治下水道的运动,说明当时下水道并没有普及,故 A 与文章内容矛盾,排除。 C 选项:下水道的存在使得人们发现细菌可以引起疾病。错误,因为文章没有提到该信息,只是说在细菌被发现之前,人们已经开始注重下水道的清洁了。 D 选项:鼓励人们离开农村,迁往城市。错误,因为文章中并没有提到这两者存在逻辑关联性。

 

12.正确答案:D 题目解析:

本题为否定事实信息题。题目问以下哪一项不是导致城市人口死亡率下降的原因,我们用排除法来做题。  A  选项:食物供应的可靠性。该信息在第六段首句中就提到“The  greater reliability of food supplies was a factor in the decline of urban death rates.”故 A 选项符合文意,排除。   B  选项:卫生水平的提高。该信息在第  2  句中提到“Even  more important were the gains in urban sanitation”故 B 选项在文中有所提及,故排除。 C 选项:疾病治疗方法的提升。该信息在第 3 句中提到“Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death rates and to urge remediation.”

所以 C 选项也符合文章事实,故排除。 D 选项:关于检查房屋的规定。该信息对应到第 2 句中的“as well as measures such as inspection of housing”,虽然文章有提到检查房屋,但是文中说的是“measure”,措施,方法。但是选项中却说“provision”,规定。文章中并没有说有制定相关规定,故 D 选项不符合原文,为正确答案。

 

13.正确答案:C 题目解析:

本题为句子插入题。待插入句的意思是“这样的个人努力对社会有着重大的、实际的影响。”  从文意上来看,上文内容一定提到了关于某个人的个人努力,而下文内容必然会阐述这种个人行为所带来的影响。所以,我们回到文中去看: 一直到 B 选项之前,都没有出现“个人”,而  C  方框的前一句话中说“Edwin  Chadwick  led  an  exemplary  urban  crusade  for underground sewers in England in the 1830s.”这句话的意思是德威克在英国引领了一次模范性的城市运动,要求对城市下水道进行改革。而 C 选项后面这句话是在说查德威克的城市运动对社会造成的影响。故句子插在 C 处最合适。D 处也不合适,因为 D 方框后面的内容也是在说明这些改革带来的积极影响,如果在 D 处把关于“积极影响”的内容断开的话,显然不合适。

 

14.正确答案:ACE 题目解析:

本题为全文总结题。我们逐一来看选项,找出正确答案:A 选项:由于科学技术、交通、和食物储存方法的进步,农业失败的影响在 1850 年后减弱。正确,对应原文三四段的内容。第三段讲的是科学技术的积极影响、第四段讲的是交通、食品加工设备的进步。故 A  选项是文章三、四段的概括总结,故为正确答案。 B 选项:食品加工技术的发展使西欧国家不需要从其他国家进口食物,可以种植自己的农作物。B 选项错误,第二段中提到“New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand.”人们开辟土地,种植本土作物;而第四段中提到交通的发展,使西欧国家可以从其他国家进口食物。但这两个信息之间并没有逻辑关联,B 选项编造了两者之间的逻辑,故 B 选项错误。   C 选项:由于食物供应变得更可靠、改革者提高卫生水平并修缮房屋,使城市人口死亡率下降。C 选项信息可以对应文章第六段的内容,是第六段论述的重点, 故 C 选项正确。 D 选项:虽然农业的失败导致了人口死亡和迁移, 但是人口数量短时间内就恢复了。错误,对应文章第二段的这句话“……and Ireland never recovered the population levels the potato had sustained to that point.”说明人口数量再也没回到之前的水平,故 D 选项与文章内容矛盾,排除。 E 选项:乡村的人口数量增长比食物供应、生存空间增长的速度要快,所以人们搬到城市以寻求工作机会和其他资源。正确,对应文章第五段内容。   F 选项:农作物种植方法的改善为农场制造了很多新的工作机会,促使人们从拥挤的城市搬到乡村。错误,全文只提及了人口从农村往城市迁移,故 F 选项在文中未提及,排除。

 


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