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TPO52托福阅读passage2:Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth 原文文本【雷哥托福】

2018-09-21 17:35:19 发布 来源:雷哥托福 阅读量:4082

本文提供的内容是托福tpo52雷哥托福整理TPO52阅读passage2:Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth原文文本+真题答案,想要获得完整版TPO52的真题答案解析,添加小助手微信:ybnt110获取,或者同学们可以来雷哥托福官网在线模考练习。

 

第二篇:Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth

 

A fluid is a substance, such as a liquid or gas, in which the component particles (usually molecules) can move past one another. Fluids flow easily and  conform  to the shape of their containers. The geologic processes related to the movement of fluids on a planet's surface can completely resurface a planet many times. These processes derive their energy from the Sun and the gravitational forces of the planet itself. As these fluids interact with surface materials, they move particles about or react chemically with them to modify or produce materials. On a solid planet with a hydrosphere and an atmosphere, only a tiny fraction of the planetary mass flows as surface fluids. Yet the movements of these fluids can drastically alter a planet. Consider Venus and Earth, both terrestrial planets with atmospheres.

 

Venus and Earth are commonly regarded as twin planets but not identical twins. They are about the same size, are composed of roughly the same mix of materials, and may have been comparably endowed at their beginning with carbon dioxide and water. However, the twins evolved differently largely because of differences in their distance from the Sun. With a significant amount of internal heat, Venus may continue to be geologically active with volcanoes, rifting, and folding. However, it lacks any sign of a hydrologic system (water circulation and distribution): there are no streams, lakes oceans or glaciers. Space probes suggest that Venus may have started with as much water as Earth, but it was unable to keep its water in liquid form. Because Venus receives more heat from the Sun, water released from the interior evaporated and rose to the upper atmosphere where the Sun's ultraviolet rays broke  the molecules apart. Much of the freed hydrogen escaped into space,  and Venus lost its water. Without water, Venus became less and less like Earth and kept an atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide acts as a blanket, creating an intense greenhouse effect and driving surface temperatures  high enough to melt lead and to prohibit the formation of  carbonate  minerals.  Volcanoes continually vented more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. On Earth, liquid water removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and combines it with calcium, from rock weathering, to form carbonate sedimentary rocks.  Without liquid water to remove carbon from the atmosphere, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus remains high.

 

Like Venus, Earth is large enough to be geologically active and for its gravitational field to hold an atmosphere. Unlike Venus, it  is just the right distance from the Sun so that temperature ranges allow water to exist as a liquid, a solid, and a gas. Water  is thus extremely mobile and moves rapidly over the planet in a continuous hydrologic cycle. Heated by the Sun, the water moves in great cycles from the oceans to the atmosphere, over the landscape in river systems, and ultimately back to the oceans. As a result, Earth's surface has been continually changed and eroded into delicate systems of river valleys - a remarkable contrast to the surfaces of other planetary bodies where impact craters dominate. Few areas on Earth have been untouched by flowing water. As a result, river valleys are the dominant feature of its landscape. Similarly, wind action has scoured fine particles away from large areas, depositing them elsewhere as vast sand seas dominated by dunes or in sheets of loess (fine-grained soil deposits). These fluid movements are caused by gravity flow systems energized by heat from the Sun. Other geologic changes occur when the gases in the atmosphere or water react with rocks at the surface to form new chemical compounds with different properties. An important example of this process was the removal of most of Earths carbon dioxide from its atmosphere to form carbonate rocks. However, if Earth were a little closer to the Sun, its oceans would evaporate; if it were farther from the Sun, the  oceans would freeze solid.

 

Because liquid water was present, self-replicating molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen developed life early in Earth's history and have radically modified its surface, blanketing huge parts of the continents with greenery. Life thrives on this planet, and it helped create the planet's oxygen- and nitrogen-rich atmosphere and moderate temperatures.

 

题目

 

1.The word "modify" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.obtain.

B.change .

C.replace.

D.absorb.

 

2.The word "drastically" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.gradually.

B.permanently.

C.extensively.

D.possibly.

 

3.Paragraph 1 supports all of the following statements about fluids EXCEPT

A.They can chemically react with particles on a planet’s surface.

B.Most of their mass does not flow but remains in place..

C.Their movement can reshape the surface of certain kinds of planets..

D.Their movement is driven by the Sun and by gravity.

 

4.The word “prohibit” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.prevent.

B.speed up.

C.affect.

D.encourage.

 

5.According to paragraph 2, what is one difference between Earth and Venus?

A.Earth has less water in its atmosphere than Venus does..

B.Earth has a hydrologic system but Venus does not..

C.Earth is less geologically active than Venus is..

D.Earth has more carbon dioxide than Venus does..

 

6.It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that  Earth evolved differently than Venus  did in part because

A.there was more volcanic activity on early Venus than on early Earth.

B.they received different amounts of solar energy.

C.their interiors contained different amounts of heat.

D.their early atmospheres contained different levels of oxygen and nitrogen.

 

7.According to paragraph 2, all of the following played a role in keeping carbon dioxide levels high in the atmosphere of Venus EXCEPT

A.the breaking apart of water molecules by ultraviolet rays.

B.the evaporation of water released from the planet's interior.

C.the escape of hydrogen into space.

D.the release of molecules from melting metals such as lead.

 

8.The word "ultimately" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A.finally.

B.slowly.

C.repeatedly.

D.constantly.

 

9.According to paragraph 3, Earth's surface is different from the surfaces of many other planetary bodies in which of the following ways?

A.It is more strongly marked by river valleys and erosion..

B.It is more geologically active..

C.It is covered by impact craters..

D.It has an atmosphere..

 

10.According to paragraph 3, why is water able to move so freely on Earth?

A.Earth's temperatures are such that water exists in solid, liquid, and gas forms..

B.Earth is large enough to be geologically active and for its gravitational field to  hold an atmosphere..

C.Earth’s surface allows river valleys to develop across the landscape..

D.Earth has active winds that blow across seas and oceans causing fluid

movements..

 

11.Why does the author point out that on Earth "gases in the atmosphere or water react with rocks at the surface to form new chemical compounds"?

A.To explain why scientists believe that few areas on Earth have been untouched by flowing water..

B.To identify one of several ways in which the movement of fluids can affect the surface of a planet..

C.To provide evidence that fluid movements are caused by gravity flow systems energized by the Sun..

D.To identify an effect of wind scouring fine particles away from large areas..

 

12.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A.Life on Earth is responsible for many changes to the planet's surface, including blankets of greenery..

B.Self-replicating molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen led to the development of life early in Earth's history..

C.The presence of water made it possible for life to develop early in Earth's history and to significantly change its surface..

D.Early in life's history on Earth, self-replicating molecules of carbon hydrogen, and oxygen began blanketing the surface in greenery.

 

13. Look at the four squares [[■]] to add the sentence to the passage. . Venus may not have always been this way.

 

14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Over time, the movement of surface fluids has greatly changed Venus and Earth. .

A.Although Venus is about the same size as Earth, its greater volcanic activity has added considerably to carbon dioxide levels in its atmosphere..

B.Like Venus Earth has an atmosphere, but Earth's atmosphere has far more oxygen and nitrogen than does the atmosphere of Venus..

C.On Earth, chemical reactions involving fluids remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by giving rise to carbonate rocks, and winds energized by gravity flow systems move fine particles from one place to another. .

D.Because Venus lost the water it originally had, most of its  carbon  dioxide remained in its atmosphere, causing the planet to become very warm..

E.On Earth, the dominance of river valley landscapes and the existence of  life are due to the planet s hydrologic cycle..

F.The evaporation of liquid water from Earth's surface is largely limited by the life forms that have developed, particularly the vegetation.

 

答案及解析

 

1.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。modify  的意思是“修改;改变”,单词在文中所在句  “As  these  fluids interact with surface materials, they move particles about or react chemically with them to modify or produce materials.”可以翻译为“当这些流体与表面物质相互作用时,它们的粒子发生交换或者发生化学反应以改变或者创造新的物质。”下面我们来看选项: A 选项:obtain,意思是“获得”,意思不符,故排除。  B  选项:change,意思是“改变”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。  C  选项:replace,意思是“代替”,意思不符,故排除。  D  选项:absorb,意思是“吸收”,  意思不符,故排除。

 

2.正确答案:C 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。drastically 的意思是“彻底地;激烈地”,单词出现在第一段倒数第二句话。这句话的意思是“然而,这些流体的运动可以极大地改变一颗行星。”下面我们逐一来看选项:A 选项:gradually,意思是“逐步地,渐渐地”,意思不符,故排除。B 选项:permanently,意思是“永久地,长期不变地”,意思不符,故排除。  C  选项:extensively,意思是“广大地,广泛地”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。  D  选项:possibly,意思是“可能地”,意思不符,故排除。

 

3.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为否定事实信息题,要选出与事实信息不符的选项。下面我们来看选项: A 选项:流体可以与星球表面发生化学反应。根据选项中的关键词“chemically”,定位到第一段倒数第 4 句“As these fluids interact with surface materials, they move particles about or react chemically  with  them  to modify  or produce  materials.”这句话提到了流体可以与别的物质发生化学反应,故 A 选项符合原文,排除。 B 选项:流体的大部分物质是不会移动的,会留在原处。根据关键词“mass”定位到第一段倒数第 3 句“On a solid planet with a hydrosphere and an atmosphere, only a tiny fraction of the planetary mass flows as surface fluids.”这句话是说行星的物质中,只有一小部分物质是流体。而 B 选项说的是,在流体中,大部分的物质不会移动。所以  2  者所针对的对象不一样。其次,即使

只看选项我们也能判断其不符合常识,因为第一段第 1 句就说流体的组成粒子会相互移动。因此,流体的所有组成部分都是会流动的。故 B 选项不符合原文,为正确答案。 C 选项: 流体的移动会重塑行星地表。对应第一段第 3 句“The geologic processes related to the movement of fluids on a planet's surface can completely resurface a planet many

times.”选项中“reshape”一词正好是原文中“resurface”的同义替换。故  C  选项符合原文,排除。D 选项:流体的运动是由太阳和引力作用驱动的。对应第4 句“These processes derive their energy from the Sun and the gravitational forces of the planet itself.”故 D 选项完全符合原文,排除。

 

4. 正确答案:A 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。prohibit 的意思是“禁止,阻止”,词汇在文中所在句“The carbon dioxide acts as a blanket, creating an intense greenhouse effect and driving surface temperatures high enough to melt lead and to prohibit the formation of carbonate minerals.”的意思是“二氧化碳起到毛毯的作用,产生强烈的温室效应,使金星的表面温度变得高到足以熔化铅,并阻止碳酸盐矿物的形成。”下面我们再来看选项:A 选项:prevent,意思是“预防;阻止”,意思符合,故为正确答案。  B 选项:speed  up,意思是“加速”,意思不符,故排除。C 选项:affect,意思是“影响”,意思不符,故排除。D 选项:encourage, 意思是“鼓励,鼓舞”,意思不符,故排除。

 

5.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。题目问以下哪一项是地球与金星的不同之处。因为第二段整段都在描写金星与地球的不同,所以无法通过题干关键词进行定位,只能逐一来看选项: A 选项:地球大气层所含水分比金星大气层少。但是第二段中提到金星从太阳那里接收到更多热量,内部的水分被蒸发,所以失去了水。故 A 选项与原文信息矛盾,错误。 B 选项:地球有水文系统,而金星没有。根据关键词“hydrologic system”,定位到这句话“However, it lacks any sign of a hydrologic system (water circulation and distribution): there are no streams, lakes oceans or glaciers.”这句话提到金星上没有任何水文系统。再往下看, “Space probes suggest that Venus may have started with as much water as Earth, but it was unable to keep its water in liquid form.”这句话说一开始金星和地球一样是有水的,但是金星无法将水分以液态形式保存。我们可以从侧面得出地球上有水。故 B  选项符合原文,正确。 C  选项:地球的地质活跃度没有金星高。第二段中确实提到金星上火山、裂陷、折叠等地质活动一直很活跃。但没有将它与地球金星比较,故比较关系不存在,

C 选项排除。 D 选项:地球比金星有更多二氧化碳。根据第二段,我们只能知道金星的大气层“filled with carbon dioxide”,但无法知道地球和金星上二氧化碳总数谁多谁少,文中未提及比较关系,故 D 排除。

 

6.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为推断题。题目问地球与金星演变方式不同的其中一个原因是?根据题干中关键词“evolved differently”,定位到第二段中这句话“However, the twins evolved differently largely because of differences in their distance from the Sun.”由此得出,与太阳之间距离的不同,是导致它们演变方式不同的最主要原因。但是没有这个选项。那么我们就要推测,与太阳距离的不同,会导致什么结果?因为金星离太阳更近,所以它吸收更多热量,而地球与太阳距离适中,温度也较适宜。所以与太阳距离的不同,会导致 2 个星期温度的不同。而温度的不同,会直接决定行星上是否存在水,间接决定行星地貌。故 B 选项:它们吸收的太阳能量不同,是正确答案。再看其他选项: A 选项:金星早期的火山活动比地球早期要更多。文章只提到金星上火山活动频繁,没有将其和地球作比较,A 排除。 C 选项: 它们所含的内部能量不同。文中未提及。C 选项排除。 D 选项:它们早期含有不同水平的氧和氮。第二段只提到“Space probes suggest that Venus may have started with as much water as Earth, but  ……”金星和地球早期都含有水,但没提到氧气和氮气含量,故 D 选项未提及,排除。

 

7.正确答案:D 题目解析:

本题为否定事实信息题。我们根据选项中的关键词回到原文定位,用排除法来做题。 A 选项:紫外线会分解水分子。根据关键词“ultraviolet rays”定位到这一句“Because Venus receives more heat from the Sun, water released from the interior evaporated and rose to the upper atmosphere where the Sun's ultraviolet rays broke the molecules apart.”故 A 选项在原文中有所提及,一旦没有了水,二氧化碳量就会持续增加。故 A  排除。 B 选项:从行星内部蒸发释放的水分会被蒸发。B 选项出处同 A 选项中的这句话。同理,B  选项排除。  C  选项:氢会逃逸到宇宙中去。根据关键词“hydrogen”、“escape”定位到这句“Much  of  the  freed  hydrogen  escaped  into  space,  and  Venus  lost  its

water.”所以 C 选项符合原文,排除。 D 选项:从熔融的金属(例如铅)中释放出的分子。根据关键词“lead”定位到这句“The  carbon  dioxide  acts  as  a  blanket,  creating  an intense greenhouse effect and driving surface temperatures high enough to melt lead and to prohibit the formation of carbonate minerals.”但这句话说的是二氧化碳浓度上升后的影响——造成温室效应,使行星温度变得高到能熔化金属。故 D 选项不是造成二氧化碳量增加的原因,所以 D 是正确答案。

8.正确答案:A 题目解析:

本题为词汇题。ultimately 的意思是“最后,最终”。单词在文中所在句“Heated by the Sun, the water moves in great cycles from the oceans to the atmosphere, over the landscape in river systems, and ultimately back to the oceans. ”的意思是“在太阳的加热作用下,水从海洋循环到大气中,经过河流系统后,又再次回到海洋中。”下面来看选项:  A  选项:finally,意思是“最后”,意思符合,故为正确答案。  B  选项:slowly,意思是“慢慢地”,意思不符,故排除。  C 选项:repeatedly,意思是“重复地”,意思不符,故排除。  D 选项:constantly,意思是“不断地,时常地”,意思不符,故排除。

 

9.正确答案:A

题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。根据题干中的关键词“other planetary bodies”可以直接定位到这一句 “As a result, Earth's surface has been continually changed and eroded into delicate systems of river valleys-a remarkable contrast to the surfaces of other planetary bodies where impact craters dominate.”所以,很显然,地球与其他星球的不同之处在于,地球的表面不断地发生变化,受到侵蚀,形成复杂的河谷系统。故 A 选项正确。 B 选项:地球的地理活跃度更高。第三段只提到地球的地理活跃度高,但没有说它比其它星球地理活跃度更高。故比较关系不存在,B 排除。 C 选项:地球表面被陨石坑覆盖。错误,因为文中说的是其他星球表面布满陨石坑。故 C 选项与原文信息矛盾。C 选项错误。 D 选项:地球有大气。但根据前文内容我们知道,金星也有大气。所以这不是地球独一无二,能够将其与其他星球区分开的特征。故 D 选项排除。

 

10.正确答案:A 题目解析:

本题为事实信息题。题目问为什么水可以在地球上自由地流动?根据题干中的关键词

“water”和“move”,可以定位到第三段第 2、3 句“Unlike  Venus,  it  is  just  the  right distance from the Sun so that temperature ranges allow water to exist as a liquid, a solid, and a gas. Water is thus extremely mobile and moves rapidly over the planet in a continuous hydrologic cycle.”第 2 句说地球适宜的温度范围能够使水以液体、固体和气体的形式存在。特别需要注意第 3 句中“thus”这个词,能体现明显的因果关系,所以地球上水能自由流动的原因,就是前面的第 2 句话。所以 A 选项正确。 B 选项:地球很大、地质活动活跃、引力能维持大气。这是地球与金星的共同点,不是水能流动的原因,属于无关干扰信息,排除。 C 选项:地球表面使河谷能够穿过。根据文意我们知道,是地球上的水造就了河谷的地貌,而 C 选项逻辑颠倒,将结果作为原因,故 C 选项排除。 D 选项: 地球的风力作用在吹过海洋时会造成流体运动。错误,因为文中只提到风力作用会带动细颗粒运动,形成沙漠。故 D 选项为无中生有,排除。

 

11.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为功能目的题。首先我们找到引号中高亮内容在文中对应的句子“Other  geologic changes occur when the gases in the atmosphere or water react with rocks at the surface to form new chemical compounds with different  properties.”注意句首的逻辑词“other”,说明大气中的气体或水与岩石发生反应生成新的化合物,这是一种地理变化的方式。而另一种肯定在前文有提到,即“wind action”。前文中说了,风力作用导致的流体运动是由太阳热能作用下产生的重力流系统导致的,这是一种改变地球地貌的方式。而

“Other……”这句话说的是另一种,流体运动通过化学方式改变地貌的方法。这两种改变地貌的方法是并列的。所以题干引号里的内容,很明显是在说明另一种流体作用改变地貌的方式,对应 B 选项,正确。 A  选项:解释为什么科学家相信地球上几乎到处都有液态水。错误,因为 A 选项与题干内容没有因果联系,故排除。 C 选项:证明由重力流系统导致的流体运动,其能量是来源于太阳。错误,因为题干内容并不是证明 C  选项的例子,两者不存在证明与被证明的关系,而是 2 个独立的、并列的要点。故 C 排除。 D 选项:说明风力作用的影响。题干内容并不是风力作用所造成的影响,故排除。

 

12.正确答案:C

题目解析:

本题为句子简化题。首先我们来看这句话。意思是,“因为液态水的存在,自我复制的碳、氢、氧分子形成了地球早期的生命,并从根本上改变了地表,使大片陆地被绿色覆盖。”句子结构是“and”并列结构,液态水的存在,一方面形成了地球早期的生命,另一方面改变了地表。在理清句子结构之后,我们来看选项: A 选项强调了“地球生命”与“改变地表” 之间的因果关系,“be responsible for”在这里是一个隐含的因果逻辑词,但原文中,“地球生命产生”和“改变地表”,是并列结构,都是液态水的存在造成的结果。故 A 逻辑错误。

B 选项只提到了“地球生命产生”,而原文后半句的“改变地貌”成分缺失。故 B 选项缺失句子主干,排除。 C 选项是原句的同义改写,并列结构清晰,句子主干完整,故为正确答案。  D 选项将原句中重要的句子主干成分“developed life early in Earth's history”,胡乱编写成了一个时间状语“early in life’s history on Earth”,不仅逻辑错误,且缺失句子主干,故排除。

 

13.正确答案:B 题目解析:

本题为句子插入题。待插入句的意思是“金星可能也并不总是这样。”然后我们回到原文来看。 A 方框前面一句话是在说金星的地质活动活跃,A 方框后一句话转折说金星上没有水文系统。从句意方面看,句子插在 A 处显然不合适。 B 方框前一句话说金星上没有水文系统。而 B 方框后一句话说航天探测器显示,金星和地球的含水量在开始的时候可能是一样的。这两句话存在转折关系。故句子插在 B 处最合适。——“金星可能并不一直是这样(没有水文系统)的,一开始金星和地球一样也含有水。” 而 C 方框和 D 方框前后的内容都是在讨论为什么金星上没有水。逻辑非常完整,不需要再插入句子了,所以 C、D 排除。

 

14.正确答案:BCD

题目解析:

本题为全文总结题。我们用排除法来做题。  A 选项:虽然金星和地球一样大,它更频繁的火山活动增加了其大气层中二氧化碳的含量。A 选项对应文章第二段,但是 A 选项有 3 点错误。1 是文章并没有提到金星火山活动比地球更频繁;2 是文章没有提到是火山活动增加了二氧化碳含量;第 3 是 A 选项是一处细节描写,不是文章主干。故 A 选项排除。   B 选项:像金星一样,地球也含有大气层,但地球的大气层含有更多氧气和氮气。对应文章第二、三段以及第三段最后 1 句。通过二、三段内容,我们知道地球和金星都有大气,而最后 1 句话说“Life  thrives  on  this  planet,  and  it  helped  create  the  planet's  oxygen  -  and nitrogen-rich atmosphere and moderate temperatures.”  生命在地球上蓬勃发展,而生命的产生也有利于为地球创造富氧和富氮的大气层和适宜的温度。故 B 选项符合文章内容,正确。  C 选项:在地球上,液体从大气层中除去二氧化碳,形成碳酸盐岩,而由重力流系统驱使的风力作用将细颗粒带到其他地区。对应文章第三段内容,C 选项概述了 2 种流体作用改变地貌的方式,符合文意,正确。  D 选项:因为金星失去了原有的水,二氧化碳一直存在于大气中,导致了温室效应。对应文章第二段内容,符合文意,正确。 E 选项: 在地球上,河谷地貌和生命是由地球的水文圈造成的。E 选项对应文章倒数第二句“Because liquid water was present, self-replicating molecules of carbon, hydrogen,  and oxygen developed life early in Earth's history and have radically modified its surface, blanketing huge parts of the continents with greenery.”  选项内容是正确的,但是这是一处细节描述,故排除。 F 选项:从地球表面蒸发的液态水,很大程度上受到生命形式的限制。该信息在全文中并未提及,故排除。

 

 


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