Cultural Lag Technological change occurs very rapidly in modern society-sometimes more rapidly than many people are prepared for. As a result, when new technology emerges, people may struggle for a time to adapt to it. This period of transition, when people are adjusting to technological change, is known as cultural lag. At first, people are not accustomed to the new technology and may not understand it, they may therefore have a negative attitude toward it. Over time, however, their attitudes change, and they successfully incorporate the new technology into their daily lives.
Cultural lag is a period of transition, when people get used to a technological change. The professor gives an example of the telephone. At the end of the nineteenth century, when telephone became widely available, only businesses used it. But the majority of the public didn’t value its use for personal communication, because, for example, some of them didn’t like to communicate without face-to-face, others considered it rude to call someone without visiting him or her in person. However, this attitude towards telephone changed over the 30 years thereafter. Talking to someone on the phone is no longer rude or abnormal. For example, friends like to call each other just for a chat, and the rules of politeness have also changed, like no one would consider the personal call impolite unless it is made late at night.
阅读的抽象概念和听力的具体事例是一一对应的，就是说，如果阅读说reference group 是指一帮子人我们很崇拜他们所以他们干嘛我们，就会去学他们干嘛听力中必然会出现具体的一帮子人我们对崇拜他们他们绝对会做一些具体的事情我们绝对会去学他们做这些事情。
in the lecture, the professor.....
比如这道题说完听力中出现具体的一帮子人我们很崇拜他们以后要说therefore, they became his REFERENCE GROUP。目的是让rater 知道你是真的听懂了听力和阅读之间的联系。