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TPO-31-Early Childhood Education

Preschools – educational programs for children under the age of five – differ significantly from one country to another according to the views that different societies hold regarding the purpose of early childhood education. For instance, in a cross-country comparison of preschools in China, Japan, and the United States, researchers found that parents in the three countries view the purpose of preschools very differently. Whereas parents in China tend to see preschools primarily as a way of giving children a good start academically, Japanese parents view them primarily as a way of giving children the opportunity to be members of a group. In the United States, in comparison, parents regard the primary purpose of preschools as making children more independent and self-reliant, although obtaining a good academic start and having group experience are also important.

While many programs designed for preschoolers focus primarily on social and emotional factors, some are geared mainly toward promoting cognitive gains and preparing preschoolers for the formal instruction they will experience when they start kindergarten. In the United States, the best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start. Established in the 1960s when the United States declared the War on Poverty, the program has served over 13 million children and their families. The program, which stresses parental involvement, was designed to serve the “whole child”, including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development.

Whether Head Start is seen as successful or not depends on the lens through which one is looking. If, for instance, the program is expected to provide long-term increases in IQ (intelligence quotient) scores, it is a disappointment. Although graduates of Head Start programs tend to show immediate IQ gains, these increases do not last. On the other hand, it is clear that Head Start is meeting its goal of getting preschoolers ready for school. Preschoolers who participate in Head Start are better prepared for future schooling than those who do not. Furthermore, graduates of Head Start programs have better future school grade. Finally, some research suggests that ultimately Head Start graduates show higher academic performance at the end of high school, although the gains are modest.

In addition, results from other types of preschool readiness programs indicate that those who participate and graduate are less likely to repeat grades, and they are more likely to complete school than readiness program, for every dollar spent on the program, taxpayers saved seven dollars by the time the graduates reached the age of 27.

The most recent comprehensive evaluation of early intervention programs suggests that, taken as a group, preschool programs can provide significant benefits, and that government funds invested early in life may ultimately lead to a reduction in future costs. For instance, compared with children who did not participate in early intervention programs, participants in various programs showed gains in emotional or cognitive development, better educational outcomes, increased economic self-sufficiency, reduced levels of criminal activity, and improved health-related behaviors. Of course, not every program produced all these benefits, and not every child benefited to the same extent. Furthermore, some researchers argue that less-expensive programs are just as good as relatively expensive ones, such as Head Start. Still, the results of the evaluation were promising, suggesting that the potential benefits of early intervention can be substantial.

Not everyone agrees that programs that seek to enhance academic skills during the preschool years are a good thing. In fact, according to developmental psychologist David Elkind, United States society tends to push children so rapidly that they begin to feel stress and pressure at a young age. Elkind argues that academic success is largely dependent upon factors out of parents’ control, such as inherited abilities and a child’s rate of maturation. Consequently, children of a particular age cannot be expected to master educational material without taking into account their current level of cognitive development. In short, children require development appropriate educational practice, which is education that is based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child.

幼儿园 - 针对五岁以下儿童的教育项目 - 根据不同社会对幼儿教育目的的看法,每个国家都有很大不同。例如,在对中国,日本和美国学前教育的跨国比较中,研究人员发现,三国的父母认为学前教育的目的非常不同。尽管中国的父母倾向于认为幼儿园主要是为了给孩子学习上好的一种方式,但是日本父母认为这主要是为了让孩子有机会成为一个群体的成员。相比之下,在美国,家长认为幼儿园的主要目的是让孩子更加独立自主,虽然获得良好的学术起点和团队经验也是重要的。

 

虽然许多为学龄前儿童设计的课程主要侧重于社交和情感因素,但有些课程主要侧重于促进认知能力的提高,并为幼儿园开始接受正式教育提供准备。在美国,旨在促进未来学术成就的最着名的计划是“开始”。该计划始建于20世纪60年代,当时美国宣布扶贫战争,为1300多万儿童及其家庭服务。该方案强调父母的参与,旨在服务于“整个孩子”,包括儿童的身体健康,自信,社会责任,社会和情感发展。

 

Head Start是否被视为成功取决于人们所看到的镜头。例如,如果该项目预计将提供智商(智商)得分的长期增长,那就令人失望。尽管“头脑启动”项目的毕业生倾向于立即显示智商,但这些增长并不会持久。另一方面,Head Start显然已经达到了让学龄前儿童准备好上学的目标。参加“创业启蒙运动”的学龄前儿童比没有上学的学生有更好的准备。此外,Head Start课程毕业生的未来学校成绩更好。最后,一些研究表明,尽管收益并不高,最终的初创毕业生在高中毕业后表现更好。

 

此外,其他类型的学前班就绪方案的结果表明,参与和毕业的人重复成绩的可能性较小,他们比完成就学计划更有可能完成学业,因为在方案上花费的每一美元,纳税人节省了七美元毕业生到达27岁的时间。

 

最近对早期干预项目进行的综合评估表明,作为一个整体来看,学前教育项目可以带来显着的效益,而早期投入的政府资金最终可能会降低未来的成本。例如,与没有参加早期干预项目的儿童相比,各种项目的参与者在情感或认知发展方面有所增加,教育成果更好,经济自给率提高,犯罪活动水平降低,以及改善与健康有关的行为。当然,并不是每个计划都能产生这些好处,也不是每个孩子都能从中受益。此外,一些研究人员认为,比较便宜的方案和相对昂贵的方案一样好,比如Head Start。尽管如此,评估的结果是有前景的,这表明早期干预的潜在好处可能是相当大的。

 

并不是每个人都同意,在学龄前期寻求提高学术技能的项目是一件好事。事实上,根据发展心理学家大卫·埃尔金德(David Elkind)的说法,美国社会倾向于如此迅速地推动孩子,使他们在年轻的时候开始感到压力和压力。埃尔金德认为,学术上的成功在很大程度上取决于父母控制的因素,如遗传能力和孩子的成熟率。因此,特定年龄的儿童如果不考虑到他们目前的认知发展水平,就不可能掌握教育材料。总之,孩子们需要发展适当的教育实践,这是基于典型发展和特定孩子独特特征的教育。

中文翻译

According to paragraph 1, parents in Japan tend to think of preschool primarily as a place where children can

  • Preschools – educational programs for children under the age of five – differ significantly from one country to A Get a good academic start B Expand their emotional development C Become more independent D Experience being part of a group
正确答案: D

网友解析

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    kisenana  发表于 2017-12-07 14:10:40

    一般细节题 定位:Japanese parents view them primarily as a way of giving children the opportunity to be members of a group. 所以在日本 父母认为preschool的作用是让孩子有机会进入团体,相对应地选择选项D; 选项A 是中国父母的目的 选项B C的内容也没有在定位的地方出现,所以可以排除BC

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    kisenana  发表于 2017-12-07 14:10:36

    一般细节题 定位:Japanese parents view them primarily as a way of giving children the opportunity to be members of a group. 所以在日本 父母认为preschool的作用是让孩子有机会进入团体,相对应地选择选项D; 选项A 是中国父母的目的 选项B C的内容也没有在定位的地方出现,所以可以排除BC

题目讨论

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    kisenana  发表于 12-07 14:10:43

    关键词 Japan tend to think of preschool

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