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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-27- Crafts in the Ancient Near East

Some of the earliest human civilizations arose in southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq, in the fourth millennium B.C.E. In the second half of the millennium, in the south around the city of Uruk, there was an enormous escalation in the area occupied by permanent settlements. A large part of that increase took place in Uruk itself, which became a real urban center surrounded by a set of secondary settlements. While population estimates are notoriously unreliable, scholars assume that Uruk inhabitants were able to support themselves from the agricultural production of the field surrounding the city, which could be reached with a daily commute. But Uruk’s dominant size in the entire region, far surpassing that of other settlements, indicates that it was a regional center and a true city. Indeed, it was the first city in human history.

The vast majority of its population remained active in agriculture, even those people living within the city itself. But a small segment of the urban society started to specialize in nonagricultural tasks as a result of the city’s role as a regional center. Within the productive sector, there was a growth of a variety of specialist craftspeople. Early in the Uruk period, the use of undecorated utilitarian pottery was probably the result of specialized mass production. In an early fourth-millennium level of the Eanna archaeological site at Uruk, a pottery style appears that is most characteristic of this process, the so-called beveled-rim bowl. It is a rather shallow bowl that was crudely made in a mold; hence, in only a limited number of standard sizes. For some unknown reason, many were discarded, often still intact, and thousands have been found all over the Near East. The beveled-rim bowl is one of the most telling diagnostic finds for identifying an Uruk-period site. Of importance is the fact that it was produced rapidly in large amounts, most likely by specialists in a central location.

A variety of documentation indicates that certain goods, once made by a family member as one of many duties, were later made by skilled artisans. Certain images depict groups of people, most likely women, involved in weaving textiles, an activity we know from later third-millennium texts to have been vital in the economy and to have been centrally administered. Also, a specialized metal-producing workshop may have been excavated in a small area at Uruk. It contained a number of channels lined by a sequence of holes, about 50 centimeters deep, all showing burn marks and filled with ashes. This has been interpreted as the remains of a workshop where molten metal was scooped up from the channel and poured into molds in the holes. Some type of mass production by specialists were involved here.

Objects themselves suggest that they were the work of skilled professionals. In the late Uruk period(3500-3100 B.C.E.), there first appeared a type of object that remained characteristic for Mesopotamia throughout its entire history: the cylinder seal. This was a small cylinder, usually no more than 3 centimeters high and 2 centimeters in diameter, of shell, bone, faience (a glassy type of stoneware), or various types of stones, on which a scene was carved into the surface. When rolled over a soft material----primarily the clay of bullae (round seals), tablets, or clay lumps attached to boxes, jars, or door bolts----the scene would appear in relief, easily legible. The technological knowledge needed to carved it was far superior to that for stamp seals, which had happened in the early Neolithic period (approximately 10,000-5000 B.C.E.). From the first appearance of cylinder seals, the carved scenes could be highly elaborate and refined, indicating the work of specialist stone-cutters. Similarly, the late Uruk period shows the first monumental art, relief, and statuary in the round, made with a degree of mastery that only a professional could have produced.

一些最早的人类文明出现在美索不达米亚南部,现在在伊拉克南部,在公元前四千年。在千年的下半叶,在乌鲁克市周围的南部,永久性定居点所占的地区出现了巨大的升级。这个增长的很大一部分发生在乌鲁克本身,乌鲁克本身成为一个由一系列二级定居点包围的真正的城市中心。虽然人口估计是臭名昭着的不可靠的,学者们认为,乌鲁克居民能够支持自己在城市周围的农业生产,可以通过每天的通勤达成。但乌鲁克在整个地区的统治地位,远远超过其他定居点,表明它是一个地区中心和一个真正的城市。的确,这是人类历史上第一个城市。

 

绝大多数人口仍然活跃于农业,甚至生活在这个城市的人们。但是由于城市作为区域中心的作用,城市社会的一小部分开始专门从事非农业任务。在生产部门,各种专业手工业者增长。早在乌鲁克时期,使用未经装饰的功利陶器可能是专门大规模生产的结果。在Uruk的Eanna考古遗址的早期的第四个千年阶段,出现了这个过程最具特色的陶器风格,即所谓的斜边碗。这是一个相当浅的碗,是在一个模具粗制造的;因此只有有限数量的标准尺寸。由于某种未知的原因,许多人被抛弃,往往仍然完好,在近东地区发现了数千人。斜边碗是识别Uruk时期遗址最有说服力的诊断之一。其中最重要的是大量生产,很可能是由中央地区的专家进行的。

 

各种各样的文献表明,某些由家庭成员作为众多职责之一的商品后来由熟练的工匠制成。某些图像描绘了参与纺织品织造的人群(很可能是女性),这是我们从后面的第三千年文本中了解到的在经济中至关重要并且已经被集中管理的活动。此外,在Uruk的一个小地方可能已经开辟了一个专门的金属生产车间。它包含了许多排成一排深度约50厘米的通道,全部显示出烧伤痕迹,并充满了灰烬。这被解释为一个车间的剩余部分,在这个车间中,熔融金属从通道中被舀出并倒入孔中的模具中。这里涉及专家的一些大规模生产。

 

物体本身表明它们是熟练的专业人员的工作。在乌鲁克晚期(公元3500 - 3100年),首先出现了一种在美索不达米亚整个历史中仍然具有特征的物体:圆柱体密封。这是一个直径不超过3厘米,直径2厘米的小圆柱体,外壳,骨头,陶器(一种玻璃状的石器)或各种类型的石头,上面刻有一个场景。当用柔软的材料(主要是粘贴在箱子,罐子或门闩上的大泡(圆形密封件),药片或粘土块)上滚动时,场景会显现出来,易于辨认。雕刻它所需的技术知识远远优于新石器时代早期(约公元前10000年至公元前5000年)发生的印章。从缸盖首次亮相开始,雕刻的场景就可以精雕细琢,展现出专业石匠的作品。同样,晚乌鲁克时期显示全面的第一个巨大的艺术,浮雕和雕像,只有一个专业可以产生的掌握程度。


中文翻译

which of the sentences below best express the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • A Although scholars cannot accurately determine the size of the Uruk population, they know the citizens were not dependent on agriculture. B scholars do not have enough evidence to determine whether the agriculture areas just outside of Uruk were large enough to feed the city’s population. C Because city populations cannot feed themselves, scholars think the surrounding farms provided food to the people in Uruk. D Scholars believe that the inhabitants of Uruk were able to support themselves from product grown in field surrounding the city. While population estimates are notoriously unreliable, scholars assume that Uruk inhabitants were able to support themselves from the agricultural production of the field surrounding the city, which could be reached with a daily commute.
正确答案: D

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    小个儿  发表于 2018-02-27 11:33:55

    句子简化题。原句逻辑关系是转折,但是后半部分

    才是重点句,前半句while的转折可以看成是对前面

    的转折。然后我们分析选项
    选项A:选项后半部分说 they know the citizens

    were not dependent on agriculture.明显和原句句

    子意思相悖,排除。
    选项B:选项B说学者没有足够的证据确认农业是否足

    够养活城市内的人口。这个原文说的是能够支撑人口

    生存,所以直接排除。
    选项C的因果逻辑关系原文没有体现,排除。
    选项D:选项D虽然没有体现出逻辑关系,我们刚也说

    了原句while的转折实际上可以看成是对前面的转折

    ,而句子简化题要考的是对句子本身逻辑关系的考察

    ,所以,我们看下句子意思。
    选项D说学者相信乌鲁克定居者能够靠农业养活自己

    。正确。

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