关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400-6021-727    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

TPO-10-Seventeenth - Century European Economic Growth

In the late sixteenth century and into the seventeenth, Europe continued the growth that had lifted it out of the relatively less prosperous medieval period (from the mid 400s to the late 1400s). Among the key factors behind this growth were increased agricultural productivity and an expansion of trade.

Populations cannot grow unless the rural economy can produce enough additional food to feed more people. During the sixteenth century, farmers brought more land into cultivation at the expense of forests and fens (low-lying wetlands). Dutch land reclamation in the Netherlands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries provides the most spectacular example of the expansion of farmland: the Dutch reclaimed more than 36,000 acres from 1590 to 1615 alone.

Much of the potential for European economic development lay in what at first glance would seem to have been only sleepy villages. Such villages, however, generally lay in regions of relatively advanced agricultural production, permitting not only the survival of peasants but also the accumulation of an agricultural surplus for investment. They had access to urban merchants, markets, and trade routes.

Increased agricultural production in turn facilitated rural industry, an intrinsic part of the expansion of industry. Woolens and textile manufacturers, in particular, utilized rural cottage (in-home) production, which took advantage of cheap and plentiful rural labor. In the German states, the ravages of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) further moved textile production into the countryside. Members of poor peasant families spun or wove cloth and linens at home for scant remuneration in an attempt to supplement meager family income.

More extended trading networks also helped develop Europe's economy in this period. English and Dutch ships carrying rye from the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal. Population growth generated an expansion of small-scale manufacturing, particularly of handicrafts, textiles, and metal production in England, Flanders, parts of northern Italy, the southwestern German states, and parts of Spain. Only iron smelting and mining required marshaling a significant amount of capital (wealth invested to create more wealth).

The development of banking and other financial services contributed to the expansion of trade. By the middle of the sixteenth century, financiers and traders commonly accepted bills of exchange in place of gold or silver for other goods. Bills of exchange, which had their origins in medieval Italy, were promissory notes (written promises to pay a specified amount of money by a certain date) that could be sold to third parties. In this way, they provided credit. At mid-century, an Antwerp financier only slightly exaggerated when he claimed, “One can no more trade without bills of exchange than sail without water." Merchants no longer had to carry gold and silver over long, dangerous journeys. An Amsterdam merchant purchasing soap from a merchant in Marseille could go to an exchanger and pay the exchanger the equivalent sum in guilders, the Dutch currency. The exchanger would then send a bill of exchange to a colleague in Marseille, authorizing the colleague to pay the Marseille merchant in the merchant's own currency after the actual exchange of goods had taken place.

Bills of exchange contributed to the development of banks, as exchangers began to provide loans. Not until the   eighteenth century, however, did such banks as the Bank of Amsterdam and the Bank of England begin to provide capital for business investment. Their principal function was to provide funds for the state.

The rapid expansion in international trade also benefitted from an infusion of capital, stemming largely from gold and silver brought by Spanish vessels from the Americas. This capital financed the production of goods, storage, trade, and even credit across Europe and overseas. Moreover an increased credit supply was generated by investments and loans by bankers and wealthy merchants to states and by joint-stock partnerships—an English innovation (the first major company began in 1600). Unlike short-term financial cooperation between investors for a single commercial undertaking, joint-stock companies provided permanent funding of capital by drawing on the investments of merchants and other investors who purchased shares in the company.

在十六世纪末十七世纪,欧洲继续增长,从中世纪相对不发达的时期(从四十年代中期到十五世纪末)取消了这一增长。这一增长背后的关键因素是农业生产力的提高和贸易的扩大。

 

除非农村经济能够生产足够的粮食来养活更多的人口,否则人口无法增长。十六世纪时,农民以牺牲森林和洼地(低洼湿地)为代价,带来更多的土地。 16和17世纪的荷兰荷兰土地复垦是农田扩张的最显着的例子:荷兰人从1590年到1615年,就开垦了36000多英亩土地。

 

欧洲经济发展的潜力很大,乍一看似乎只是困倦的村庄。但是,这样的农村一般都是在农业生产比较发达的地区,不仅农民生存,而且也是农业剩余投资的积累。他们有机会进入城市商人,市场和贸易路线。

 

农业生产的增加反过来又促进了农业产业,这是产业扩张的一个固有部分。毛织品和纺织品制造商尤其利用农村平房(家庭)生产,利用廉价而丰富的农村劳动力。在德国各州,三十年战争(1618 - 1648年)的蹂躏使纺织品生产进一步进入农村。贫农家庭成员在家里纺织或织布,报酬微薄,以补充微薄的家庭收入。

 

更大的交易网络也有助于在这个时期发展欧洲的经济。从波罗的海国家运载黑麦的英国和荷兰船只抵达西班牙和葡萄牙。在英格兰,佛兰德斯,意大利北部的部分地区,德国西南部和西班牙的部分地区,人口增长导致了小规模制造业的扩张,特别是手工业,纺织业和金属生产。只有铁矿冶炼和采矿需要大量的资本(为创造更多财富而投资的财富)。

 

银行和其他金融服务的发展有助于贸易的扩大。到十六世纪中叶,金融家和贸易商普遍接受汇票代替其他商品的黄金或白银。起源于中世纪意大利的汇票是期票(书面承诺在一定日期前支付特定金额),可以出售给第三方。这样,他们提供了信贷。在本世纪中叶,一位安特卫普金融家只是稍微夸张了一下,他声称:“没有交换条件,没有交换条件的交易比没有水的帆更多了。”商人不再需要在漫长而危险的旅程中运送金银。来自马赛商人的肥皂可以到一个交换机,并用荷兰盾(荷兰货币)向交换机支付等值的金额,然后交换机向马赛的同事发一张汇票,授权同事向马赛商人支付实际交换货物后,商家自己的货币。

 

交易所开始提供贷款,汇票有助于银行的发展。但直到十八世纪,阿姆斯特丹银行和英格兰银行等银行才开始为商业投资提供资金。他们的主要职能是为国家提供资金。

 

国际贸易的迅速扩张也得益于资本的注入,主要来自西班牙船只从美洲带来的黄金和白银。这个资本为欧洲和海外的商品,仓储,贸易乃至信贷生产提供资金。此外,银行家和富商向国家投资和贷款以及通过股份合作 - 英国创新(第一家大公司在1600年开始)创造了更多的信贷供给。与投资者为单一商业经营进行的短期金融合作不同,合资公司通过吸引在公司购买股份的商户和其他投资者的投资,提供了长期的资金投入。


中文翻译

According to paragraph 1, what was true of Europe during the medieval period?

  • In the late sixteenth century and into the seventeenth, Europe continued the growth that had lifted it out of the relatively less prosperous medieval period (from the mid 400s to the late 1400s).  A Agricultural productivity declined. B There was relatively little economic growth. C The general level of prosperity declined. D Foreign trade began to play an important role in the economy.
正确答案: B

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-02 13:44:42

    事实信息题
    解析:根据medieval period定位到第1句,说这个时期不那么繁荣,B是同义表达

题目讨论

雷哥托福微信

  • 微信公众号:toeflgo

    二维码
  • 小托君:Toefl12345

    二维码
查看详情图片

您已提交评论成功

确定