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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-10-Chinese Pottery

China has one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations—despite invasions and occasional foreign rule. A country as vast as China with so long-lasting a civilization has a complex social and visual history, within which pottery and porcelain play a major role.

The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broad types—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural items such as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was an important group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of which were produced in earthenware.

The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.

Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. To   twentieth-century eyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the form of each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragon represented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranate indicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood for wedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fish leaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Only when European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings become obscured or even lost.

From early times pots were used in both religious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1279-1368) an imperial ceramic factory was established at Jingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Long and often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assist in classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large and complicated picture.

中国是世界上历史最悠久的连续文明之一,尽管入侵和偶尔有外国统治。一个像中国这样一个文明如此长久的国家,具有复杂的社会和视觉历史,陶瓷在这个历史中起着重要的作用。

 

中国陶瓷在中国的功能和地位各有不同,因此可能是功利性,埋葬性,贸易收藏家,甚至是仪式对象,都是根据它们的品质和时代来制定的。陶瓷分为三大类:陶器,stone器和陶瓷器皿,屋顶瓦等建筑用品,建筑物和图案。另外还有一大批用于宗教用途的雕塑,其中大部分是用陶器制作的。

 

最早的陶器被烧成陶器的温度,但早在公元十五世纪,高温陶器就是用釉面制成的。六朝时期(公元265-589),华北的窑炉生产高质量的高烧陶瓷。从七世纪到十世纪,河北和河南的白瓷产生了宋代高度珍贵的瓷器(公元960-1279年),长期以来被视为中国陶瓷工业史上的一个高峰。宗教雕刻的传统延续了大部分的历史时期,但与陶器或瓷器的划分不太清楚,因为它包含了以后的宗教形象和建筑装饰的陶器陶瓷旧习俗。陶瓷产品还包括汉代的铅釉墓葬模型,唐代的三色铅釉器皿和人物,以及明三色的寺庙装饰品,其中的图案被勾勒成滑落的痕迹以及模仿制造具有较高内在价值的材料的船只制造的许多埋葬陶瓷。

 

西方与沉稳繁荣的中国朝代之间的贸易引进了新的形式和不同的技术。最深远的例子之一是公元9世纪精细的影响。中国瓷器进口到阿拉伯世界。所以他们钦佩的是,他们鼓励模仿陶瓷制作的陶器的发展,并对其制造方法进行研究。中国从中东获得了一种蓝色色素 - 一种当时在中国只能得到纯化的氧化钴的纯化形式 - 只含有少量的锰。在中国发现的钴矿石含锰量高,产生更为柔和的蓝灰色。十七世纪荷兰东印度公司的贸易活动,使大量的中国瓷器被带到欧洲,刺激和影响了各种各样的器皿,特别是代尔夫特的工作。中国人自己改编了许多来自西方的具体船型,如长嘴巴的瓶子,并且特别为欧洲市场设计了一系列装饰图案。

 

正如希腊盆上的彩绘图案今天似乎纯粹是装饰性的,而实际上它们是精心制作的,所以当时它们的意义是清楚的,所以中国的盆也是如此。对于二十世纪的眼睛来说,中国的陶器可能只是装饰而已,但对于中国人来说,每一件物品的形式和装饰都有其意义和意义。龙代表皇帝,凤凰代表皇后;石榴表示生育力,一对鱼,幸福;鸳鸯代表w bl的幸福;松树,桃,鹤是长寿的象征;而从海浪跳跃的鱼类则表明公务员考试取得成功。只有引入欧洲的装饰主题,这些意义才会变得模糊甚至迷失。

 

从早期的宗教和世俗的情况下使用锅。宫廷委托工作,元朝(公元1279 - 1368年)在景德镇建立了一个皇家陶瓷厂。盆在一些宗教仪式中扮演重要角色。存在着对不同类型的器皿的长时间的抒情描述,这有助于对器皿进行分类,尽管这些描述有时会混淆已经很大而且复杂的图片。


中文翻译

The word “status” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made.  A origin B importance C quality D design status
正确答案: B

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2017-12-28 17:48:51

    词汇题
    解析:status地位、重要身份,与B重要性最接近。这句说制陶业的function功能和status怎么样,那么function和status并列,说明它们在层次上是相近的,而且后面说每个朝代都不一样。A源头和function不并列,也不会变。C质量,后面也提到了质量,排除。D设计,与后面的例子不匹配。

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