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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-01-The Origins of Theater

In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.


Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations. As a person becomes more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites. But the myths that have grown up around the rites may continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites. When this occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns. 

Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being. Storytelling has been proposed as one alternative. Under this theory, relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures. Thus, the recalling of an event (a hunt, battle, or other feat) is elaborated through the narrator’s pantomime and impersonation and eventually through each role being assumed by a different person.

A closely related theory sees theater as evolving out of dances that are primarily pantomimic, rhythmical or gymnastic, or from imitations of animal noises and sounds. Admiration for the performer’s skill, virtuosity, and grace are seen as motivation for elaborating the activities into fully realized theatrical performances. 

In addition to exploring the possible antecedents of theater, scholars have also theorized about the motives that led people to develop theater. Why did theater develop, and why was it valued after it ceased to fulfill the function of ritual? Most answers fall back on the theories about the human mind and basic human needs. One, set forth by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., sees humans as naturally imitative—as taking pleasure in imitating persons, things, and actions and in seeing such imitations. Another, advanced in the twentieth century, suggests that humans have a gift for fantasy, through which they seek to reshape reality into more satisfying forms than those encountered in daily life. Thus, fantasy or fiction (of which drama is one form) permits people to objectify their anxieties and fears, confront them, and fulfill their hopes in fiction if not fact. The theater, then, is one tool whereby people define and understand their world or escape from unpleasant realities.

But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed. One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense. For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.

为了描述戏剧的起源,人们必须主要依靠投机,因为没有什么具体的证据可以借鉴。人类学家在十九世纪末和二十世纪初所倡导的最广泛接受的理论,认为戏剧是摆脱了神话和仪式。这些人类学家所感知的过程可以简要地总结一下。在发展的早期阶段,社会意识到影响或控制食物供应和福利的力量。对自然原因了解甚少,它把超自然力量和魔力力量都称为理想的和不理想的事件,并寻找获得这些力量的手段。认识到团体所采取的某些行动与结果之间存在明显的联系,这个团体重复,精炼并将这些行动形式化为固定的仪式或仪式。

 

故事(神话)可能随着仪式而成长。神话常常包括仪式庆祝或希望影响的那些超自然力量的代表。表演者可以穿上服装和面具,代表仪式或伴随的庆典中的神话人物或超自然的力量。随着人变得越来越复杂,超自然力量和因果关系的概念可能会改变。因此,可能会放弃或修改一些仪式。但是围绕仪式成长起来的神话可能会继续作为该组织口头传统的一部分,甚至可能在与这些仪式脱节的条件下行事。当这种情况发生时,第一步就是把戏剧作为一种自主的活动,其后的娱乐和审美价值可能会逐渐取代以前的神秘和社会有效的关注。

 

虽然仪式的起源一直是最受欢迎的,但它绝不是唯一的理论。讲故事已被提议作为一种选择。根据这个理论,关于和听故事被视为人类基本的乐趣。因此,通过叙述者的手势和模仿,最终通过由不同人承担的每个角色来详述事件(狩猎,战斗或其他壮举)。

 

一个紧密相关的理论认为戏剧是从舞蹈演变出来的,舞蹈主要是哑剧,有节奏或体操,或者是模仿动物的声音和声音。对演员的技巧,精湛技艺和优雅的钦佩被看作是将演出精心策划成完全实现的文艺演出的动力。

 

除了探讨剧场的可能前提之外,学者们还对导致人们发展剧场的动机进行了理论化。戏剧为什么会发展,为什么它在不再履行仪式的功能之后才受到重视呢?大多数答案都回溯到关于人类思想和人类基本需求的理论。亚里士多德在公元前四世纪提出的一个观点认为,人类自然是模仿人类,喜欢模仿人物,事物和行为,看到这种模仿。另一个在二十世纪取得进步的事实表明,人类有幻想的天赋,通过这种天赋,他们试图将现实重塑成比日常生活中更为满足的形式。因此,幻想或虚构(戏剧是一种形式)允许人们把他们的焦虑和恐惧化身为对象,并且如果不是事实,他们也能实现他们的虚构的希望。那么剧院就是人们定义和理解他们的世界或者摆脱不愉快现实的工具。

 

但是,人类的模仿本能和对幻想的爱好本身都不会导致自主的戏剧。因此,需要额外的解释。一个必要的条件似乎是对人类问题有些分离的看法。例如,这种情况的一个标志是喜剧性视觉的出现,因为喜剧需要充分的分离,以便将某些与社会规范的偏差视为荒谬而不是对整个群体福利的严重威胁。有助于自主戏剧发展的另一个条件是审美意识的出现。例如,一些早期的社会不再考虑某些对他们的幸福至关重要的礼仪,而放弃了这些礼仪,然而,他们保留了作为其口头传统的一部分的礼仪周围长大的神话,并为他们的艺术品质而不是他们的艺术品质他们的宗教用途。

中文翻译

The word “penchant ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. A compromise B inclination C tradition D respect penchant
正确答案: B

网友解析

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    十三个  发表于 2018-10-21 21:04:29

    penchant: (强烈)倾向,嗜好,趣味。A是妥协;B是倾向;C是传统;D是尊敬。对应原文:But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. 原文与penchant并列的词是imitative instinct,对于幻想的什么什么,上面两题都说了人们弄出戏剧的两个原因,一个是模仿,对应这道题里的imitative instinct,另外一个就是把现实理想化,也就是爱幻想。所以penchant应该表示喜欢,喜爱之意。compromise妥协和tradition传统都不靠谱,respect尊敬有些靠谱,但和inclination倾向比起来明显不是正确答案

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    joannazz  发表于 2017-12-05 14:27:18

    这句话接着前段内容,即戏院发展的两个原因:模仿的本能+爱幻想,所以penchant应该有“喜欢、倾向于”的意思,B(倾向)最接近

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