关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

文章结构

Official 15-L3 .Palimpsest 点击收藏

标准

  • 高音
  • 静音
  • 句子
    精听
  • 全文
    精听
  • 听写
    模式
  • 点击查看本句

    听写本句 再播一遍 下一句
  • 点击查看全文

    再播一遍本文

    Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    Now in Europe in the Middle Ages before the invention of printing and the printing press, all books, all manuscripts were hand-made.

    And the material typically used for the pages was parchment, which is animal skin that stretched and dried under tension.

    So it becomes really flat and can be written on.

    During the 1400s, when printing was being developed, paper became the predominant material for books in Europe, but prior to that, it was parchment.

    Parchment is durable, much more so than paper, and it could be reused which came in handy since it was a costly material and in short supply.

    So it wasn't uncommon for the scribes or monks who produce the manuscripts.

    Ah, remember before printing books were made mainly in monasteries.

    Well, the scribes often recycled the parchment that had been used for earlier manuscripts.

    They simply erased the ink off the parchment and wrote something new in its place.

    A manuscript page that was written on, erased and then used again is called a palimpsest.

    Palimpsests were created, well, we know about two methods that were used for removing ink from parchment.

    In the late Middle Ages, it was customary to scrape away the surface of the parchment with an abrasive, which completely wiped out any writing that was there.

    But earlier in the Middle Ages, the original ink was usually removed by washing the used parchment with milk. That removed the ink.

    But with the passing of time, the original writing might reappear.

    In fact, it might reappear to the extent that scholars could make it out and even decipher, the original text.

    Perhaps, the most famous example is the Archimedes' palimpsest.

    Archimedes lived in Greece around 200 B.C.E, and as you probably know, he's considered one of the greatest Mathematicians who ever lived, even though, many of his writings had been lost, including what many now think to be his most important work called The Method.

    But in 1998, a book of prayers from the Middle Ages sold in an art auction for a lot of money, more money than anyone would pay for a damaged book from the 12th century.

    Beautiful or not, why?

    It had been discovered that the book was a palimpsest, and beneath the surface writing of the manuscript laid, guess what?

    Mathematical theorems and diagrams from Archimedes.

    Archimedes' writings were originally done on papyrus scrolls.

    Then in the 10th century, a scribe made a copy on parchment of some of his texts and diagrams including, as it turns out, The Method.

    This was extremely fortunate, since later on, the original papyrus scrolls disappeared.

    About 200 years later in the 12th century, this parchment manuscript became a palimpsest when a scribe used the parchment to make a prayer book.

    So the pages, the pieces of parchment themselves, had been preserved.

    But the Archimedes' text was erased and written over, and no one knew it existed.

    It wasn't until 1906 that a scholar came across the prayer book in a library and realized it was a palimpsest, and the underlying layer of texts could only have come from Archimedes.

    That was when his work The Method was discovered for the first time.

    Um... the palimpsest then went through some more tough times, but eventually it ended up in an art auction where was bought and then donated to an art museum in Baltimore, for conservation and study.

    To avoid further damage to the manuscript, the research team at the art museum has had to be extremely selective in the techniques they used to see the original writing.

    They've used ultraviolet light and some other techniques, and if you're interested in that sort of thing, you can learn more about it in our art conservation class.

    But actually, it was a physicist who came up with a method that was a breakthrough.

    He realized that the iron in the ancient ink would display if it was exposed to a certain X-ray imaging method, and except for small portions of the texts that couldn't be deciphered, this technique has been very helpful in seeing Archimedes' texts and drawings through the medieval overwriting.

    • special
    ☞查看答案 再播一遍

联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

  • 上海(总部)
  • 北京
  • 成都
  • 杭州
  • 武汉
  • 南京
  • 广州
  • 西安
  • 重庆
  • 深圳
  • 上海(总部)服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:上海市徐汇区文定路218号德必徐家汇WE艺术湾B座205

    公交路线:76路、93路、138路宜山路蒲汇塘路站;205路、732路、754路南丹路宜山路站;205路、754路、830路南丹路文定路站等

    地铁路线:地铁3号线、4号线宜山路站出站470m;地铁1号线、4号线上海体育馆站出站600m。

  • 北京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:北京市朝阳区雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦508

    公交路线:乘坐公交44路外环;58路;139路;特12路外环;特2路;夜20路外环到雅宝路公交站 下车,走140米即可达到。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁1号线、2号线到建国门站(A出口)步行1000米即可到达;乘坐地铁2号线、6号线到朝阳门站(A出口)步行1200米即可到达雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦。

  • 成都服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:成都市锦江区总府路31号Z31六楼(皇冠假日酒店旁)

    公交路线:乘坐58路、98路、锦城观光3号线、熊猫快线5号线在春熙路步行街北站下 步行约281米。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线或者3号线到春熙路C口下,步行约982米

  • 杭州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:杭州市江干区江锦路159号 平安金融中心B座8楼

    公交路线:901路、105路环线、106路环线、9M路:富春路民心路口站 176路:市民中心北大门站,市民中心西大门站

    地铁路线:号线钱江路站;4号线钱江路,江锦路

  • 武汉服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:武汉市珞瑜路光谷世界城广场写字楼1栋1单元14层11421室

    公交路线:乘坐18路,25路,340路,510路,518路,521路等公交车到珞瑜路湖北省中医院站下车

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线至珞雄路A口出,往湖北省中医院光谷院区方向步行50米至世界城广场写字楼

  • 南京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址: 南京市秦淮区中山东路532号金蝶科技园 H1幢308号(林客社 内)

    公交路线:5路 34路 34路区间 36路 55路 59路 y5路夜间 17路 65路 115路 118路 y17路夜间

    地铁路线:地铁2号线明故宫站1号口出,向东200米

  • 广州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:广州市天河区体育西路103号维多利广场B座26楼K15

    公交路线:11,18,20,230,278,293,45,583,669,886冼村路中站下。 194,40,777,778,90,观光2路花城广场路站下。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁APM线至花城大道站下B口出,步行约500米即可到达保利威座大厦北塔。

  • 西安服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:西安市莲湖区北大街西华门十字西南角78号嘉会广场C座4层B021号

    公交路线:4路、12路、26路、36路、37路、229路、游7钟楼北站;15路、16路、32路、102路、182路、236路、286路西华门站。

    地铁路线:地铁二号线钟楼站150米;地铁一号线/二号线北大街站700米。

  • 重庆服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:重庆市渝中区邹容路68号大都会广场16楼1603-1604室

    公交路线:401、135、114、111、401、151、862、181、262、105、866、153、466

    地铁路线:2号线临江门站500米、1号线小什字站500米、6号线小什字站500米。

  • 深圳服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:深圳市罗湖区书城路都市名园B栋5楼B区(只接受预约拜访)

    公交路线:101路 10路 12路 203路 214路 215路 223路 29路 3路 85路 M112路 M191路 M192路 N3路 P100路(定制公交请预约) 高快巴士200号线 高快巴士20路 高快巴士863号线到地王大厦下,步行431米即可到达。

    地铁路线:乘坐1号线/罗宝线/2号线/蛇口线到大剧院(E口)出,步行498米即可到达都市名园B栋

预约托福考试规划师