关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

文章结构

TPO 50-L1 .Ancient Egyptian Glass 点击收藏

标准

  • 高音
  • 静音
  • 句子
    精听
  • 全文
    精听
  • 听写
    模式
  • 点击查看本句

    听写本句 再播一遍 下一句
  • 点击查看全文

    再播一遍本文

    Listen to part of a lecture in an ancient history class.

    Ok, last time we were discussing trade and commerce during the Bronze Age.

    And I said a little over three thousand years ago, there was quite a lively trade among the countries along the Mediterranean Sea.

    People are making objects out of bronzes and they were using bronze tools to make other goods.

    And they develop trade networks to trade these goods with other countries around the Mediterranean.

    One of the things they traded was glass.

    And recently there was an archeological excavation in Egypt, on the Nile River around where enters the Mediterranean Sea where they discovered an ancient glass factory. Robert?

    I thought our textbook said the Egyptians imported their glass from other countries.

    Well, until now that’s what the evidence seemed to suggest.

    I mean, we have some evidence that suggested that the Egyptians were making glass objects, but not glass.

    Ok. Am……Am I missing something?

    They are making glass but they are not making glass?

    I said they were making glass objects, right?

    You see, it was previously thought that they weren’t actually making the raw glass itself that they were importing unfinished glass from Mesopotamia, which today is a region consisting of Iraq and parts of Syria and Turkey and Iran, and simply reworking it.

    Most archeologists believed that the glass factories were in Mesopotamia because that’s where the oldest known glass remains come from.

    You see, there was two stages of glass making.

    The primary production stage where they made disks of raw glass.

    And there was the secondary stage where they melted the raw glass, the glass disks, and created decorative objects, so, or whatever.

    And from this new Egyptians’ site, we learned that the primary production stage had several steps.

    First they took quartz, a colorless transparent mineral and crushed it.

    Then they took that crushed quartz and mixed it with plant ash.

    A plant ash is just what it sounds like, the ashes left after you burnt plant material.

    They slowly heated this mixture at a relatively low temperature in small vessels, containers like jars made out of clay.

    And that yielded a kind of glassy material.

    They took this glassy material and grounded it up into a powder and then they used metallic dye to color it.

    After that, they poured the colored powder out into disk-shaped molds and heated it up to very high tem peratures.

    So that it melted.

    After cooled, they break the molds, and inside there were the glass disks.

    These disks were shipped out to other sites within Egypt and places around the Mediterranean.

    Then in the secondary phase, the disks were reheated, and shaped into decorative objects. Susan?

    So what kind of objects were people making back then?

    Well, the most common objects we found, mostly in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the most common objects were beads.

    One thing the Egyptian were very good at was imitating precious stones.

    They created some beads that look so much like emeralds and pearls that was very difficult to distinguish them from the real thing.

    Em, and……and also beautiful vessels, ah, with narrow necks.

    They were probably really valuable so they wouldn’t have been used to hold cooking oil or common food items.

    They were most likely used for expensive liquids, like perfume.

    Now the glass made at this factory was mostly red, to get this red color they used copper, in a sophisticated process.

    Of course, any kind of glass was very valuable so these red bottles would only have been owned by wealthy people.

    In fact, because it was so difficult to make, and sort of mysterious and complicated, it was probably a product produced for the royal family.

    And they probably used glass to show their power.

    Also, beautiful expensive objects made great gifts if you are looking to establish or strength the political alliances.

    And it is quite possible that the ancient Egyptians were actually exporting glass, not just making it or importing it.

    The trade with Mesopotamia was probably a friendly mutual trade because a Mesopotamia glass was usually white or yellow.

    So Mesopotamians might accept something like, we will give you two white disks for two red disks.

    There is no proof of that, at least not yet.

    • special
    ☞查看答案 再播一遍

联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

预约托福考试规划师