关闭图标
log图标

toefl.viplgw.cn

  • 使用手机注册
  • 使用邮箱注册
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    用户名不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

已有账号? 登录到雷哥托福
关闭图标
log图标
  • 使用手机找回密码
  • 使用邮箱找回密码
  • 手机号不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

  • 邮箱不能为空!

    验证码不能为空!

    密码不能为空!

又想起来了
加入生词本

listen

英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

已添加
×

我要举报草莓小菇凉评论

用户头像
草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

请选择举报类型:

举报电话:400 1816 180    举报QQ:2095453331
×
logo图标
分享到雷哥托福

分享成功图标分享成功

邀请名师点评成功,管理员正在安排老师进行点评。

继续做题 返回首页
支付雷豆失败图标 雷豆余额不足 购买雷豆 返回
报告题目错误
请选择错误类型:
请描述一下这个错误:

取消

文章结构

TPO 10-L4 .Childhood Amnesia 点击收藏

标准

  • 高音
  • 静音
  • 句子
    精听
  • 全文
    精听
  • 听写
    模式
  • 点击查看本句

    听写本句 再播一遍 下一句
  • 点击查看全文

    再播一遍本文

    Listen to a part of lecture in a psychology class.

    OK. If I ask about the earliest thing you can remember, I'll bet for most of you your earliest memory, would be from about age 3, right?

    Well, that's true for most adults.

    We can't remember anything that happened before the age of 3.

    And this phenomenon is so widespread and well documented.

    it has a name. It's called childhood amnesia and was first documented in 1893.

    As I said, this phenomenon refers to adults not being able to remember childhood incidents.

    It's not children trying to remember events from last month or last year.

    Of course it follows that if you can't remember an incident as a child, you probably won't remember it as an adult.

    OK, so, so why is this?

    What are the reasons for childhood amnesia?

    Well, once a popular explanation was that childhood memories are repressed ... uh, the memories are disturbing so as adults we keep them buried,

    And so we can recall them.

    And this is based on well, well, it's not based on, on, on the kind of solid research in lab testing I want to talk about today.

    So let's put that explanation aside and concentrate on just two. OK?

    It could be that as children we do form memories of things prior to age 3, but forget them as we grow older.

    That's one explanation.

    Another possibility is that children younger than 3 lack, lack some cognitive capacity for memory.

    And that idea that children are unable to form memories that's been the dominant belief in psychology for the past hundred years.

    And this idea is very much tied to two things.

    The theories of Jean Piaget and also to language development in children.

    So, Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

    Piaget suggested that because they don't have language, children younger than 18 to 24 months live in the here and now, that is they lack the means to symbolically represent objects and events that are not physically presented.

    Everybody get that?

    Piaget proposed that young children don't have a way to represent things that aren't right in front of them.

    That's what language does, right?

    Words represent things, ideas.

    Once language starts to develop, from about age 2, they do have a system for symbolical representation and can talk about things which aren't in their immediate environment, including the past.

    Of course, he didn't claim that infants don't have any sort of memory.

    It's acknowledged that they can recognize some stimuli, like faces.

    And for many years, this model was very much in favor in psychology, even though memory tests were never performed on young children.

    Well, finally in the 1980s, a study was done.

    And this study showed that very young children under the age of 2 do have the capacity for recall.

    Now, if the children can't talk, how was recall tested?

    Well, that's a good question, since the capacity for recall has always been linked with the ability to talk.

    So the researchers set up an experiment using imitation-based tasks.

    Adults used props, uh, toys or other objects to demonstrate an action that have 2 steps.

    The children were asked to imitate the steps immediately.

    And then again after delays of one or more month.

    And even after a delay, the children could, could recall or replicate the action, the objects used, the steps involved and the order of the steps.Even children as young as 9 month.

    Now, tests showed that there was a faster rate of forgetting among the youngest children.

    But most importantly, it showed that development of recall did not depend on language development.

    And that was an important finding.

    I guess I should add that the findings don't say that there was no conncetion, no connection between the development of language and memory.

    There are some evidence that being able to talk about that event does lead to having a stronger memory of that event.

    But that doesn't seem to be the real issue here.

    So back to our question about the cause of childhood amnesia.

    Well, there is something called the rate of forgetting and the childhood amnesia may reflect the high rate of forgetting.

    In other words, children under the age of 3 do form memories and do so without language.

    But they forget the memories at a fast rate, probably faster than adults do.

    Researchers have set a standard, sort of unexpected rate of forgetting.

    But that expected rate was set based on tests done on adults.

    So what is the rate of forgetting for children under the age of 3.

    We expect it to be high. But the tests to prove this really haven't been done yet.

    • special
    ☞查看答案 再播一遍

联系雷哥托福

全国免费咨询热线:400 1816 180

  • 上海(总部)
  • 北京
  • 成都
  • 杭州
  • 武汉
  • 南京
  • 广州
  • 西安
  • 重庆
  • 深圳
  • 上海(总部)服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:上海市徐汇区文定路218号德必徐家汇WE艺术湾B座205

    公交路线:76路、93路、138路宜山路蒲汇塘路站;205路、732路、754路南丹路宜山路站;205路、754路、830路南丹路文定路站等

    地铁路线:地铁3号线、4号线宜山路站出站470m;地铁1号线、4号线上海体育馆站出站600m。

  • 北京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:北京市朝阳区雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦508

    公交路线:乘坐公交44路外环;58路;139路;特12路外环;特2路;夜20路外环到雅宝路公交站 下车,走140米即可达到。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁1号线、2号线到建国门站(A出口)步行1000米即可到达;乘坐地铁2号线、6号线到朝阳门站(A出口)步行1200米即可到达雅宝路7号 E园EPARK大厦。

  • 成都服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:成都市锦江区总府路31号Z31六楼(皇冠假日酒店旁)

    公交路线:乘坐58路、98路、锦城观光3号线、熊猫快线5号线在春熙路步行街北站下 步行约281米。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线或者3号线到春熙路C口下,步行约982米

  • 杭州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:杭州市江干区江锦路159号 平安金融中心B座8楼

    公交路线:901路、105路环线、106路环线、9M路:富春路民心路口站 176路:市民中心北大门站,市民中心西大门站

    地铁路线:号线钱江路站;4号线钱江路,江锦路

  • 武汉服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:武汉市珞瑜路光谷世界城广场写字楼1栋1单元14层11421室

    公交路线:乘坐18路,25路,340路,510路,518路,521路等公交车到珞瑜路湖北省中医院站下车

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁2号线至珞雄路A口出,往湖北省中医院光谷院区方向步行50米至世界城广场写字楼

  • 南京服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址: 南京市秦淮区中山东路532号金蝶科技园 H1幢308号(林客社 内)

    公交路线:5路 34路 34路区间 36路 55路 59路 y5路夜间 17路 65路 115路 118路 y17路夜间

    地铁路线:地铁2号线明故宫站1号口出,向东200米

  • 广州服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:广州市天河区体育西路103号维多利广场B座26楼K15

    公交路线:11,18,20,230,278,293,45,583,669,886冼村路中站下。 194,40,777,778,90,观光2路花城广场路站下。

    地铁路线:乘坐地铁APM线至花城大道站下B口出,步行约500米即可到达保利威座大厦北塔。

  • 西安服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:西安市莲湖区北大街西华门十字西南角78号嘉会广场C座4层B021号

    公交路线:4路、12路、26路、36路、37路、229路、游7钟楼北站;15路、16路、32路、102路、182路、236路、286路西华门站。

    地铁路线:地铁二号线钟楼站150米;地铁一号线/二号线北大街站700米。

  • 重庆服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:重庆市渝中区邹容路68号大都会广场16楼1603-1604室

    公交路线:401、135、114、111、401、151、862、181、262、105、866、153、466

    地铁路线:2号线临江门站500米、1号线小什字站500米、6号线小什字站500米。

  • 深圳服务中心

    电话:400 1816 180

    地址:深圳市罗湖区书城路都市名园B栋5楼B区(只接受预约拜访)

    公交路线:101路 10路 12路 203路 214路 215路 223路 29路 3路 85路 M112路 M191路 M192路 N3路 P100路(定制公交请预约) 高快巴士200号线 高快巴士20路 高快巴士863号线到地王大厦下,步行431米即可到达。

    地铁路线:乘坐1号线/罗宝线/2号线/蛇口线到大剧院(E口)出,步行498米即可到达都市名园B栋

预约托福考试规划师