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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-17-Question4

阅读材料

Ritualization Sociobiologists believe that some communicative behavior in animals is developed through a process called ritualization. In this process, the purpose of a given behavior changes over time—a behavior that originally had a practical purpose develops into one that communicates a specific message. For example, a certain movement or physical feature might evolve to serve as a signal or a warning that other animals will understand. Once a behavior is ritualized, it becomes a form of communication; therefore, if an animal engages in this behavior, other animals will be able to interpret the meaning of the behavior quickly and respond appropriately.

听力材料

问题

Explain the concept of ritualization using the example of dogs discussed by the professor.

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    恩恩耶  发表于 08-13 16:09:07

    参考范文: The lecture mainly talks about ritualization, a process by which a practical behavior in animals develops into a communicative one. The professor uses the example of dogs showing their teeth to explain it. Originally, dogs showed their teeth before they were going to bite to avoid biting their own lips. Then other animals learned that dogs always showed their teeth before they bit, so they began to read it as a warning signal and they would stay away the dogs after they saw this. As this happened again and again, the dog realized that it didn't have to bite to protect itself, and showing teeth is enough to keep other animals away, so they began to use it as a warning signal. This is how the dog showing its teeth has been ritualized. (132 words)

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    恩恩耶  发表于 08-13 16:09:04

    参考范文: The lecture mainly talks about ritualization, a process by which a practical behavior in animals develops into a communicative one. The professor uses the example of dogs showing their teeth to explain it. Originally, dogs showed their teeth before they were going to bite to avoid biting their own lips. Then other animals learned that dogs always showed their teeth before they bit, so they began to read it as a warning signal and they would stay away the dogs after they saw this. As this happened again and again, the dog realized that it didn't have to bite to protect itself, and showing teeth is enough to keep other animals away, so they began to use it as a warning signal. This is how the dog showing its teeth has been ritualized. (132 words)

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模范答案

答题思路

这道题一般来说是大家最头疼的题目。
因为阅读很抽象题目很多时候两个单词都看不懂更多时候是看懂了也不知道
在说什么。
这道题记住一个原则
阅读的抽象概念和听力的具体事例是一一对应的,就是说,如果阅读说reference group 是指一帮子人我们很崇拜他们所以他们干嘛我们,就会去学他们干嘛听力中必然会出现具体的一帮子人我们对崇拜他们他们绝对会做一些具体的事情我们绝对会去学他们做这些事情。
听力中除了以上和阅读相关的,其他的信息不用听不用记。
回答:题目会要求用听力中的例子解释阅读定义
in the lecture, the professor.....
然后原则是听力中请出现阅读关键词,
比如这道题说完听力中出现具体的一帮子人我们很崇拜他们以后要说therefore, they became his REFERENCE GROUP。目的是让rater 知道你是真的听懂了听力和阅读之间的联系。

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