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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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OG真题练习-The Expression of Emotions

The Expression of Emotions

Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language.

Most investigators concur that certain facial expressions suggest the same emotions in all people. Moreover, people in diverse cultures recognize the emotions manifested by the facial expressions. In classic research Paul Ekman took photographs of people exhibiting the emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. He then asked people around the world to indicate what emotions were being depicted in them. Those queried ranged from European college students to members of the Fore, a tribe that dwells in the New Guinea highlands. All groups, including the Fore, who had almost no contact with Western culture, agreed on the portrayed emotions. The Fore also displayed familiar facial expressions when asked how they would respond if they were the characters in stories that called for basic emotional responses. Ekman and his colleagues more recently obtained similar results in a study of ten cultures in which participants were permitted to report that multiple emotions were shown by facial expressions. The participants generally agreed on which two emotions were being shown and which emotion was more intense.

Psychological researchers generally recognize that facial expressions reflect emotional states. In fact, various emotional states give rise to certain patterns of electrical activity in the facial muscles and in the brain. The facial-feedback hypothesis argues, however, that the causal relationship between emotions and facial expressions can also work in the opposite direction. According to this hypothesis, signals from the facial muscles ("feedback") are sent back to emotion centers of the brain, and so a person's facial expression can influence that person's emotional state. Consider Darwin's words: "The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it. On the other hand, the repression, as far as possible, of all outward signs softens our emotions." Can smiling give rise to feelings of good will, for example, and frowning to anger?

Psychological research has given rise to some interesting findings concerning the facial-feedback hypothesis. Causing participants in experiments to smile, for example, leads them to report more positive feelings and to rate cartoons (humorous drawings of people or situations) as being more humorous. When they are caused to frown, they rate cartoons as being more aggressive.

What are the possible links between facial expressions and emotion? One link is arousal, which is the level of activity or preparedness for activity in an organism. Intense contraction of facial muscles, such as those used in signifying fear, heightens arousal. Self-perception of heightened arousal then leads to heightened emotional activity. Other links may involve changes in brain temperature and the release of neurotransmitters (substances that transmit nerve impulses.) The contraction of facial muscles both influences the internal emotional state and reflects it. Ekman has found that the so-called Duchenne smile, which is characterized by ''crow’s feet" wrinkles around the eyes and a subtle drop in the eye cover fold so that the skin above the eye moves down slightly toward the eyeball, can lead to pleasant feelings.

Ekman’s observation may be relevant to the British expression “keep a stiff upper lip” as a recommendation for handling stress. It might be that a “stiff” lip suppresses emotional response—as long as the lip is not quivering with fear or tension. But when the emotion that leads to stiffening the lip is more intense, and involves strong muscle tension, facial feedback may heighten emotional response.

在世界范围内各种不同的文化里,人们都是要经历欢乐和悲伤的,但我们怎么区分其他人是高兴还是沮丧呢?事实上,很多情感的表达可能是通用的。比如,微笑显然表示友好和赞同。查尔斯达尔文是进化论的创始人,他在19世纪曾指出,怀有敌意地露出牙齿表现的是愤怒的情绪,人类对面部表情的认知具有一定的生存值。例如,面部表情可以以非语言的方式帮你判断迎面而来的是敌还是友。

很多调查得出了同样的结论,即人类的某些面部表情表达的含义是通用的。此外,不同文化背景的人可以通过面部表情的识别来判断对方的情绪。在一个经典的研究项目中,保罗埃克曼拍下了一组人的照片,分别表示愤怒、厌恶、恐惧、幸福、悲伤。然后,他安排来自世界各地的人们识别照片中所表达的情感。这些人包括欧洲大学生,居住在新几内亚高地的部落等。包括几乎从未接触过西方文化的人在内的所有人得出了一致的答案。此外,问卷中还给出了一些人们熟悉的基本表情,要求答卷者回答如果你是故事中的人物你会作出哪种基本表情?埃克曼和他的同事们从近期的一项统计中得出了相同的结论,他们对来自10个不同文化背景的参与者们进行了调查,参与者可以通过多种面部表情传达复杂的情绪。画面表达了哪两种情感?其中那张更严肃?答案基本一致。

研究心理学的学者们通常认为,面部表情可以反映人们内心的情绪状态。事实上,各种情绪状态的波动都会使得面部肌肉和大脑的电波活动增加。然而,脸部回馈假说论者们却坚持,面部表情和情绪之间的因果关系也可能是反的。他们认为,脸部肌肉承载的信号会被传至大脑的控制情绪的部位中,因此人类面部表情会影响他们的情绪。试想达尔文的话:“自由的情绪表达方式会增强心中的情感。相反,如果抑制这种表达则会削弱心中的情感。” 比如,微笑可以让你心情大好吗?皱眉会让你变得愤怒吗? 

关于脸部回馈假说,心理学研究提供了一些有趣的发现。比如,让参与实验的人们微笑,他们会表现的更加积极,他们评价图片相对而言更加风趣幽默。当他们皱眉头时,则变得加咄咄逼人。

面部表情和内心情感之间存在什么样可能的联系呢?首先,是刺激。这是一个有机体活动的准备阶段。面部肌肉的紧张收缩会加剧这种刺激,如那些表现得极度的恐惧肌肉收缩。加强刺激的自我感知会加剧内心各种情绪。其次,他们的联系可能会涉及到大脑温度变化和神经递质的释放(传递神经冲动的物质)。面部肌肉的收缩反映并影响内心情绪状态。埃克曼发现,所谓的杜兴微笑,就是指眼睛周围的鱼尾纹和眼皮的微微下垂,引发眼睛表面的皮肤轻微朝着眼球方向下降,从而引起愉快的感觉。

埃克曼的看法可能与英国习语“保持咬紧牙关”有关,人们可以用过紧咬牙关缓解自身压力。很有可能是因为紧咬牙关抑制了消极情绪,只要嘴唇没紧张或者恐惧得发抖。但是,当内心情绪导致僵硬的嘴唇更加紧张时,面部表情强有力的收缩很有可能会加剧内心的情绪反应。 

中文翻译

The word “relevant” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • Ekman’s observation may be relevant to the British expression “keep a stiff upper lip” as a recommendation for handling stress. A.contradictory B.confusing C.dependent D.applicable relevant
正确答案: D

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