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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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OG真题练习-Artisans and Industrialization

Artisans and Industrialization

Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.

The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did not occur easily. Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respected master artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.

The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates of productivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and stricter sense of time. Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at the sound of a bell and workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time, workers were required to discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who was alert, dependable, and self-disciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.

The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan's dream of setting up one's own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.

In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rights and traditional ways of life. Craft workers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formed unions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades' Union. The labor movement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in the depression that followed, labor's strength collapsed. During hard times, few workers were willing to strike* or engage in collective action. And skilled craft workers, who spearheaded the union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilled factory workers and unskilled laborers. More than a decade of agitation did finally bring a workday shortened to 10 hours to most industries by the 1850’s, and the courts also recognized workers' right to strike, but these gains had little immediate impact.

Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status, but they were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religious perspectives, occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics. For them, the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss of independence and a measure of control over their lives. As United States society became more specialized and differentiated, greater extremes of wealth began to appear. And as the new markets created fortunes for the few, the factory system lowered the wages of workers by dividing labor into smaller, less skilled tasks.

1815年以前,美国的制造业仅限于技术高超的工匠在自己家中和作坊中进行生产。作为师傅,工匠们将自己的手艺传授给徒弟和雇工。此外,妇女们在家中通常也会兼职从事一些生产活动,将商业资本家提供的原料制成成品。1815年以后,这种古老的生产模式逐渐消失,雇佣没有技术或半技术劳动者的机械化工厂开始兴起。廉价的交通运输网络、城市的兴起和资本借贷的可行性都促进了制造业从手工作坊到工厂生产的转变。

想要获得适应在工厂工作中劳动力并不容易。在工厂兴起之前,工匠们只是呆家里进行生产,学徒们被视为家庭的一份子,师傅不光负责传授他们手艺,还要教育并监督他们的道德行为。雇工也明白如果他们的技艺足够精湛,就会成为受人尊敬的工匠师傅并拥有自己的作坊。同时,老练的工匠师傅们并不会按照时间计划安排生产,他们更习惯于时而闲暇,时而为了交单连夜赶工的生产方式。

工厂化生产改变了这一切。工厂生产的商品没有手工制作的那么完美和精致,工厂要求工人们提高生产效率,导致工人们对自身技艺的自豪感逐渐弱化。工厂化生产方式要求工人们加强之前没有的时间观念,要求他们严格遵守工作时间的安排,铃声响起,工人们开始操控机器稳速运转。工人们在适应新的生产方式的同时,还要摒弃旧习惯。产业主义要求工人们具备机敏、可靠和自律的素质。既然工厂生产已经专业化,旷工与迟到就会降低劳动生产率,也会影响工厂的正常运转。工业化进程不仅促成了一种工作组织形式的根本改变,而且改变了工作的本质。

适应新的生产方式对第一代经历产业革命的工人来说是一件非常困难的事情。工厂的时钟变成了新工作规定的象征。一名最终辞职的磨坊工人袒露真情地抱怨道:“让我们听从于叮叮当当的钟表,简直就把我们当成了活生生的机器。”工人们不仅丧失了人身自由,他们的社会地位也开始下降。和手工作坊里徒弟与监督他们的师傅之间的密切工作关系不同,工厂将工人阶层与管理层明显地区分开。很少有工人能够僭越等级被提升到管理层的岗位,甚至基本没有人能够实现身为工匠时的梦想:经营自己的生意。那些待遇优厚的工人也开始感到他们的社会地位在下降。

在这种新的经济秩序中,有时工人们会组织起来共同去保护他们的权利和传统的生活方式。比如木匠、印刷工人和裁缝等技术工人成立了联盟,并且,在1834年,各个独立的联盟组织成立了国家职工联盟。在1837年大恐慌前之的十年中,工人运动取得了进步,不过随后而来的经济大萧条最终导致了工人力量的瓦解。那段时间,很少有人愿意罢工或者参与工人运动。身为工人运动先锋队的技术工匠们,并没有感到他们与半技术工人和非技术劳动者之间有显著密切的联系。直到19世纪50年代,超过十年的抗争最终使得大多数行业的工作时间缩短至10小时,法院也承认了工人罢工的权利,但这些权利的影响并没有立即显现。

因为对工业体系和他们社会地位丧失的不满,工人们开始联合起来,但他们内部又被另外的因素分裂:民族和种族的敌对、性别差异、宗教信仰的冲突、职位差别、对不同政党的忠诚和工作策略的分歧等。对于工人们来说,工厂和工业化不代表着机遇,却时刻提醒着他们自身的丧失,并成为一种控制他们生活的手段。随着美国社会生产变得更加专业化和差异化,更大规模的极端财富开始出现。并且由于新兴市场只给少数人创造财富,工业体系不得不通过将劳动分割成更小的、技术含量更低的工作来降低工人们的工资。

中文翻译

The word “spearheaded” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  •  And skilled craft workers, who spearheaded the union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilled factory workers and unskilled laborers.  A.led B.accepted C.changed D.resisted spearheaded
正确答案: D

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