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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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OG真题练习-Aggression

Aggression

When one animal attacks another, it engages in the most obvious example of aggressive behavior. Psychologists have adopted several approaches to understanding aggressive behavior in people.

The Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. One is the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. In response to certain stimuli, many animals show instinctive aggressive reactions. The hypothalamus appears to be involved in this inborn reaction pattern: electrical stimulation of part of the hypothalamus triggers stereotypical aggressive behaviors in many animals. In people, however, whose brains are more complex, other brain structures apparently moderate possible instincts.

An offshoot of the biological approach called sociobiology suggests that aggression is natural and even desirable for people. Sociobiology views much social behavior, including aggressive behavior, as genetically determined. Consider Darwin's theory of evolution. Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than can find food and survive into adulthood. A struggle for survival follows. Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation. In many species, such characteristics include aggressiveness. Because aggressive individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce, whatever genes are linked to aggressive behavior are more likely to be transmitted to subsequent generations.

The sociobiology view has been attacked on numerous grounds. One is that people's capacity to outwit other species, not their aggressiveness, appears to be the dominant factor in human survival. Another is that there is too much variation among people to believe that they are dominated by, or at the mercy of, aggressive impulses.

The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as "steam engines." By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward strangers later in life.

According to psychodynamic theory, the best ways to prevent harmful aggression may be to encourage less harmful aggression. In the steam-engine analogy, verbal aggression may vent some of the aggressive steam. So might cheering on one's favorite sports team. Psychoanalysts, therapists adopting a psychodynamic approach, refer to the venting of aggressive impulses as "catharsis." Catharsis is theorized to be a safety valve. But research findings on the usefulness of catharsis are mixed. Some studies suggest that catharsis leads to reductions in tension and a lowered likelihood of future aggression. Other studies, however, suggest that letting some steam escape actually encourages more aggression later on.

The Cognitive Approach. Cognitive psychologists assert that our behavior is influenced by our values, by the ways in which we interpret our situations and by choice. For example, people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified-as during wartime-are likely to act aggressively, whereas people who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively.

One cognitive theory suggests that aggravating and painful events trigger unpleasant feelings. These feelings, in turn, can lead to aggressive action, but not automatically. Cognitive factors intervene. People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people's motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not.

Catharsis: In psychodynamic theory, the purging of strong emotions or the relieving of tensions.

动物攻击异己时,会表现出非常明显的侵略性行为。心理学家们采用了数种方法来分析人类的侵略性行为。

生物学方法。侵略性行为似乎与许多生物结构和化学物质有关。如大脑中的下丘脑。很多动物在受到特定刺激时会表现出本能的侵略反应。下丘脑似乎与动物的这种本能反应有关:对许多动物的下丘脑中部分区域进行电激,会引发一些它们的常见侵略性行为。然而,人类的大脑要复杂的多,大脑的其他结构似乎可以抑制这种本性。

社会生物学是生物学方法的一个分支,该理论认为侵略性对于人类而言是天生并且必要的。社会生物学认为,包括侵略性行为在内的许多社会行为都是由遗传决定的。根据达尔文的进化论,他认为,个体存在的数量远远超过那些可以找到食物并且活到成年的个体数量,个体之间开始进行生存竞争,那些拥有竞争优势的个体更容易存活,并且会将它们有利于生存竞争的基因遗传给下一代。大部分物种所具有的竞争优势特质之一就是好斗性。拥有侵略性特质的个体更容易存活和繁殖,因此,与侵略性行为相关的各种基因遗传给下一代的可能性更大。

该理论在众多方面遭到质疑。其一,人类拥有其他物种不具备的能力,这种并非侵略性质的能力才是人类生存下来的主要原因。其二,人类身上存在太多的变数,因此,我们无法相信人类会被侵略性冲动主导或者支配。

精神动力学方法。理论家们依据精神动力学方法认为,内在矛盾是理解人类包括侵略性行为在内的所有行为的关键所在。比如,弗洛伊德认为,日常生活中的挫败感不可避免地导致人类产生侵略性冲动。孩子们时常想对包括他们父母在内的其他人发泄侵略性冲动的情感,因为即使是最周全的父母也无法做到立即满足孩子的所有要求。然而,孩们又会因为害怕受到父母的处罚,担心失去父母的爱而压制了内心大部分的侵略性冲动。从某种意义上说,弗洛伊德的观点是将人类视为“蒸汽机”,通过内部压制而不是释放“蒸汽”,进而为今后的爆发埋下伏笔。积聚起来的侵略性冲动需要被释放出来。侵略性冲动会间接发泄到孩子的父母身上,比如毁坏家具,或在以后的生活中对陌生人发泄。

根据精神动力学理论可知,避免有害侵略的最好方法是提倡危害较小的侵略方式。用蒸汽机打个比方吧,言语性的侵略可以释放些许带有侵略性质的蒸汽。比如,你可以为自已最喜欢的体育团队呐喊助威。精神分析学家是利用精神动力学方法分析的理疗师,他们将侵略性冲动的发泄看成是“精神发泄”。理论证明精神发泄是一种安全的方式。但研究发现精神发泄的有用性和无用性很混乱。有的研究表明精神发泄可以缓解紧张情绪并且有助于降低以后侵略性行为产生的可能性。但其他研究人,他们的好斗性可能更高,而认为某些战争或侵略行为是不公平的,并且认为侵略永远是不正当的人,他们遇事时不大可能会采取侵略性行为。

另一认知理论认为,恼人的、痛苦的事件会引起人们的不悦。随即,这种不悦将导致但并非自动地导致侵略性行为,人们的认知因素会在其中起到干预作用。一个人是否采取出侵略性行动取决于以下因素,他们进行侵略性攻击的经历,对他人动机的解读等。研究表明带有侵略性的人经常曲解他人的意图。例如,他们认为别人想伤害自己,而事实并非如此。

中文翻译

The word “distort” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distortother people's motives. A.mistrust B.misinterpret C.criticize D.resent distort
正确答案: B

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