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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-25-The Decline of Venetian Shipping

In the late thirteenth century, northern Italian cities such as Genoa, Florence, and Venice began an economic resurgence that made them into the most important economic centers of Europe. By the seventeenth century, however, other European powers had taken over, as the Italian cities lost much of their economic might.

This decline can be seen clearly in the changes that affected Venetian shipping and trade. First, Venice’s intermediary functions in the Adriatic Sea, where it had dominated the business of shipping for other parties, were lost to direct trading. In the fifteenth century there was little problem recruiting sailors to row the galleys (large ships propelled by oars): guilds (business associations) were required to provide rowers, and through a draft system free citizens served compulsorily when called for. In the early sixteenth century the shortage of rowers was not serious because the demand for galleys was limited by a move to round ships (round-hulled ships with more cargo space), with required fewer rowers. But the shortage of crews proved to be a greater and greater problem, despite continuous appeal to Venic’s tradition of maritime greatness. Even though sailors’ wages doubled among the northern Italian cities from 1550 to 1590, this did not elicit an increased supply.

The problem in shipping extended to the Arsenale, Venice’s huge and powerful shipyard. Timber ran short, and it was necessary to procure it from farther and farther away. In ancient Roman times, the Italian peninsula had great forest of fir preferred for warships, but scarcity was apparent as early as the early fourteenth century. Arsenale officers first brought timber from the foothills of the Alps, then from north toward Trieste, and finally from across the Adriatic. Private shipbuilders were required to buy their oak abroad. As the costs of shipbuilding rose, Venice clung to its outdated standard while the Dutch were innovation in the lighter and more easily handled ships.

The step from buying foreign timber to buying foreign ships was regarded as a short one, especially when complaints were heard in the latter sixteenth century that the standards and traditions of the Arsenale were running down. Work was stretched out and done poorly. Older workers had been allowed to stop work a half hour before the regular time, and in 1601 younger works left with them. Merchants complained that the privileges reserved for Venetian-built and owned ships were first extended to those Venetians who bought ships from abroad and then to foreign-built and owned vessels. Historian Frederic Lane observes that after the loss of ships in battle in the late sixteenth century, the shipbuilding industry no longer had the capacity to recover that it had displayed at the start of the century.

The conventional explanation for the loss of Venetian dominance in trade is establishment of the Portuguese direct sea route to the East, replacing the overland Silk Road from the Black sea and the highly profitable Indian Ocean-caravan-eastern Mediterranean route to Venice. The Portuguese Vasco da Gama’s Voyage around southern Africa to India took place at the end of the fifteenth century, and by 1502 the trans- Abrabian caravan route had been cut off by political unrest.

The Venetian Council finally allowed round ships to enter the trade that was previously reserved for merchant galleys, thus reducing transport cost by one third. Prices of spices delivered by ship from the eastern Mediterranean came to equal those of spices transported by Paortuguese vessels, but the increase in quantity with both routes in operation drove the price far down. Gradually, Venice’s role as a storage and distribution center for spices and silk, dyes cotton, and gold decayed, and by the early seventeenth century Venice had lost its monopoly in markets such as France and southern Germany.

Venetian shipping had started to decline from about 1530-before the entry into the Mediterranean of large volumes of Dutch and British shipping-and was clearly outclassed by the end of the century. A contemporary of Shakespeare (1564-1616) observed that the productivity of Italian shipping had declined, compared with that of the British, because of conservatism and loss of expertise. Moreover, Italian sailors were deserting and emigrating, and captains, no longer recruited from the ranks of nobles, were weak on navigations.

十三世纪后期,热那亚,佛罗伦萨,威尼斯等意大利北部城市开始了经济复苏,使之成为欧洲最重要的经济中心。然而,到了十七世纪,欧洲其他国家也接管了意大利的城市,失去了大部分的经济实力。

 

在威尼斯航运和贸易的变化中可以清楚地看到这种下降。首先,威尼斯在亚得里亚海的中介机构,主宰了其他各方的航运业务,因此失去了直接交易。在十五世纪,招募水手们划船(用桨推动的大型船只)几乎没有什么问题:行会(商业协会)被要求提供划船者,并通过草案制度免费公民在受到强制要求时服役。在十六世纪初,赛艇运动员的短缺情况并不严重,因为对轮船的需求受到限制,因为轮船(货物空间较大的轮船)的需求量较少,需要的运动员人数也较少。但是,尽管人们不断呼吁韦尼克的航海伟大的传统,但船员的短缺被证明是一个越来越大的问题。尽管从1550年到1590年,意大利北部城市的水手工资翻了一番,但这并没有导致供给增加。

 

航运问题扩展到威尼斯庞大而强大的造船厂阿森纳。木材不足,有必要从更远更远的地方采购。在古代罗马时代,意大利半岛有大量的战舰优先选择的森林,但是早在十四世纪初,稀缺就显而易见了。阿森纳官员首先从阿尔卑斯山的山脚下带木材,然后从北部到里雅斯特,最后从亚得里亚海穿过。私人造船商被要求在国外购买橡木。随着造船成本的上升,威尼斯紧随其后的标准,而荷兰则在更轻,更容易处理的船舶上进行创新。

 

从购买外国木材到购买外国船只的步骤都被认为是短暂的,特别是在十六世纪后期听到阿森纳的标准和传统正在流失的投诉。工作被拉伸,做得不好。老年工人在正常时间前半个小时就被允许停止工作,而在1601年,他们还有一些年轻的工作。商人们抱怨说,为威尼斯人建造和拥有的船只保留的特权首先扩展到那些从国外购买船只,然后再购买外国船只和自有船只的威尼斯人。历史学家弗雷德里克(Frederic Lane)指出,在十六世纪末船舶失事后,造船业已经不具备在本世纪初显示出的恢复能力。

 

威尼斯人在贸易中丧失统治地位的传统解释是建立葡萄牙直接通往东方的海上航线,取代黑海的陆上丝绸之路和地中海高利润的印度洋 - 大篷车 - 地中海东部通往威尼斯的航线。葡萄牙瓦斯科·达伽马在南非到印度的航行发生在十五世纪末,到1502年,由于政治动乱,阿拉伯的大篷车路线被切断了。

 

威尼斯委员会最终允许圆船进入此前为商船预留的交易,从而将运输成本降低了三分之一。从东地中海运来的香料的价格与普通葡萄牙船运的香料价格相当,但两条运营线路的数量增加,导致价格大幅下降。威尼斯逐渐成为香料和丝绸,染色棉和黄金腐烂的储存和分销中心,到十七世纪早期,威尼斯已经在法国和德国南部等市场丧失了垄断地位。

 

威尼斯航运从大约1530年开始衰落,在大量荷兰和英国航运进入地中海之前,在本世纪末明显地被淘汰。当代莎士比亚(1564一1616)观察到意大利航运的生产力与英国相比,由于保守主义和专业知识的丧失而下降。此外,意大利水手正在抛弃和移民,而不再从贵族行列中招募的船长,在航行方面表现欠佳。


中文翻译

The word “resurgence” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • began an economic resurgence that made them into the A transformation. B comeback. C program. D expansion. resurgence
正确答案: B

网友解析

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    小托君  发表于 2018-08-01 14:42:36

    resurgence 复兴,复活,所以正确答案是comeback。不认识的同学想想前缀re-,表示 再次,所以能沾边儿的就只有B的back 了。代入后的意思是经济上的什么使得这些城 市成为最重要的经济中心,复兴是说得通的。尽管A转变、C计划和D扩张也不算错,但词缀明显告诉我们正确答案是B。

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