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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-17-Animal Signals in the Rain Forest

Animal Signals in the Rain Forest

The daytime quality of light in forests varies with the density of the vegetation, the angle of the Sun, and the amount of cloud in the sky. Both animals and plants have different appearances in these various lighting conditions. A color or pattern that is relatively indistinct in one kind of light may be quite conspicuous in another.

In the varied and constantly changing light environment of the forest, an animal must be able to send visual signals to members of its own species and at the same time avoid being detected by predators. An animal can hide from predators by choosing the light environment in which its pattern is least visible. This may require moving to different parts of the forest at different times of the day or under different weather conditions, or it may be achieved by changing color according to the changing light conditions. Many species of amphibians (frogs and toads) and reptiles (lizards and snakes) are able to change their color patterns to camouflage themselves. Some also signal by changing color. The chameleon lizard has the most striking ability to do this. Some chameleon species can change from a rather dull appearance to a full riot of carnival colors in seconds. By this means, they signal their level of aggression or readiness to mate.

Other species take into account the changing conditions of light by performing their visual displays only when the light is favorable. A male bird of paradise may put himself in the limelight by displaying his spectacular plumage in the best stage setting to attract a female. Certain butterflies move into spots of sunlight that have penetrated to the forest floor and display by opening and closing their beautifully patterned wings in the bright spotlights. They also compete with each other for the best spot of sunlight.

Very little light filters through the canopy of leaves and branches in a rain forest to reach ground level—or close to the ground—and at those levels the yellow-to-green wavelengths predominate. A signal might be most easily seen if it is maximally bright. In the green-to-yellow lighting conditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellow and green would be the brightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, these colors would not be very visible if the animal was sitting in an area with a yellowish or greenish background. The best signal depends not only on its brightness but also on how well it contrasts with the background against which it must be seen. In this part of the rain forest, therefore, red and orange are the best colors for signaling, and they are the colors used in signals by the ground-walking Australian brush turkey. This species, which lives in the rain forests and scrublands of the east coast of Australia, has a brown-to-black plumage with bare, bright-red skin on the head and neck and a neck collar of orange-yellow loosely hanging skin. During courtship and aggressive displays, the turkey enlarges its colored neck collar by inflating sacs in the neck region and then flings about a pendulous part of the colored signaling apparatus as it utters calls designed to attract or repel. This impressive display is clearly visible in the light spectrum illuminating the forest floor.

Less colorful birds and animals that inhabit the rain forest tend to rely on other forms of signaling other than the visual, particularly over long distances. The piercing cries of the rhinoceros hornbill characterize the Southeast Asian rain forest, as do the unmistakable calls of the gibbons. In densely wooded environments, sound is the best means of communication over distance because in comparison with light, it travels with little impediment from trees and other vegetation. In forests, visual signals can be seen only at short distances, where they are not obstructed by trees. The male riflebird exploits12 both of these modes of signaling simultaneously in his courtship display. The sounds made as each wing is opened carry extremely well over distance and advertise his presence widely. The ritualized visual display communicates in close quarters when a female has approached.

动物信号在雨林里

森林里白天的光线质量随着植被的密度,太阳的角度和天空中的云量而变化。在这些不同的照明条件下,动物和植物都有不同的外观。在一种光线中相对模糊的颜色或图案在另一种光线中可能相当显眼。

 

在森林不断变化的光照环境中,动物必须能够将视觉信号发送给自己的物种成员,同时避免被捕食者发现。动物可以通过选择其图案最不明显的光环境来躲避掠食者。这可能需要在一天的不同时间或在不同天气条件下移动到森林的不同部位,或者可以根据变化的光照条件改变颜色来实现。许多两栖动物(青蛙和蟾蜍)和爬行动物(蜥蜴和蛇)能够改变它们的颜色模式来伪装自己。有些还通过改变颜色发出信号。变色龙蜥蜴有最显着的能力做到这一点。一些变色龙种类可以在几秒钟内从一个相当枯燥的外观变成一个狂欢色彩的全面骚乱。通过这种方式,他们表明他们的攻击或准备交配的水平。

 

其他物种只有在光线良好的情况下才通过视觉显示来考虑光线的变化情况。一只雄鸟可以通过在最好的舞台设置中展示他壮观的羽毛来吸引女性,从而将自己置于风头之中。某些蝴蝶通过在明亮的聚光灯下打开和关闭它们精美的图案的翅膀,移动到已经渗透到森林地面的阳光斑点并显示。他们也相互争夺最佳的阳光点。

 

很少的光通过雨林中的树叶和树枝的冠层过滤到达地平面或接近地面,在这些层面,黄色到绿色的波长占主导地位。一个信号可能是最容易看到,如果它是最明亮的。在森林最底层的绿色到黄色的照明条件下,黄色和绿色是最明亮的颜色,但是当一个动物发出信号时,如果动物坐在一个区域内,这些颜色就不会很明显淡黄或绿色的背景。最好的信号不仅取决于它的亮度,还取决于它与背景的对比度。因此,在雨林的这一部分,红色和橙色是发出信号的最佳颜色,它们是地面行走的澳大利亚画笔火鸡在信号中使用的颜色。这种生活在澳大利亚东海岸的热带雨林和灌木丛中的种类,有一头棕黑色的羽毛,头部和颈部有光亮的红色皮肤,还有一个橙黄松松垂悬的皮肤的颈领。在求偶和激进的展示中,火鸡通过在颈部区域充气囊扩大其有色的脖子领,然后在彩色信号装置的下摆部分甩动,因为它发出旨在吸引或排斥的呼叫。这种令人印象深刻的显示在照亮森林地板的光谱中清晰可见。

 

居住在雨林中的色彩鲜艳的鸟类和动物倾向于依赖除了视觉之外的其他形式的信号,特别是长距离的信号。犀角犀鸟的刺耳的哭泣象征着东南亚的热带雨林,长臂猿的明确呼唤也是如此。在茂密的树木环境中,声音是远距离通讯的最佳手段,因为与光线相比,它在树木和其他植被中几乎不受阻碍。在森林里,视觉信号只能在很短的距离才能看到,而且不会被树木阻挡。男性riflebird在他的求偶展示中同时利用这两种信号模式。随着每个机翼的打开,发出的声音在远处传播得非常好,广泛宣传他的存在。仪式化的视觉显示器在女性接近时密切联系。


中文翻译

The phrase conspicuous in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • A color or pattern that is relatively indistinct in one kind of light may be quite conspicuous in another. A Commom B Noticeable C Different D Colorful conspicuous
正确答案: B

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    恩恩耶  发表于 2018-08-22 11:29:40

    B conspicuous: 明显的,显而易见的。A是通常的,普遍的;B是所以B显而易见的,显著的;C是不同的;D是富有色彩的,有趣的。所以B的noticeable正确。

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-22 15:43:28

    词汇题
    解析:这句在对比说在一种light中是indistinct(模糊的、不清楚的),在另一种是conspicuous,说明与indistinct意思相反,选B. conspicuous显著的、显而易见的

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