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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-17-Europe's Early Sea Trade with Asia

In the fourteenth century, a number of political developments cut Europe's overland trade routes to southern and eastern Asia, with which Europe had had important and highly profitable commercial ties since the twelfth century. This development, coming as it did when the bottom had fallen out of the European economy, provided an impetus to a long-held desire to secure direct relations with the East by establishing a sea trade. Widely reported, if somewhat distrusted, accounts by figures like the famous traveler from Venice, Marco Polo, of the willingness of people in China to trade with Europeans and of the immensity of the wealth to be gained by such contact made the idea irresistible. Possibilities for trade seemed promising, but no hope existed for maintaining the traditional routes over land A new way had to be found.

The chief problem was technological: How were the Europeans to reach the East? Europe's maritime tradition had developed in the context of easily navigable seas—the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and, to a lesser extent, the North Sea between England and the Continent—not of vast oceans. New types of ships were needed, new methods of finding one's way, new techniques for financing so vast a scheme. The sheer scale of the investment it took to begin commercial expansion at sea reflects the immensity of the profits that such East-West trade could create. Spices were the most sought-after commodities. Spices not only dramatically improved the taste of the European diet but also were used to manufacture perfumes and certain medicines. But even high-priced commodities like spices had to be transported in large bulk in order to justify the expense and trouble of sailing around the African continent all the way to India and China.

The principal seagoing ship used throughout the Middle Ages was the galley, a long, low ship fitted with sails but driven primarily by oars. The largest galleys had as many as 50 oarsmen Since they had relatively shallow hulls, they were unstable when driven by sail or when on rough water: hence they were unsuitable for the voyage to the East. Even if they hugged the African coastline, they had little chance of surviving a crossing of the Indian Ocean. Shortly after 1400, shipbuilders began developing a new type of vessel properly designed to operate in rough, open water: the caravel. It had a wider and deeper hull than the galley and hence could carry more cargo: increased stability made it possible to add multiple masts and sails. In the largest caravels, two main masts held large square sails that provided the bulk of the thrust driving the ship forward, while a smaller forward mast held a triangular-shaped sail, called a lateen sail, which could be moved into a variety of positions to maneuver the ship.

The astrolabe had long been the primary instrument for navigation, having been introduced in the eleventh century. It operated by measuring the height of the Sun and the fixed stars: by calculating the angles created by these points, it determined the degree of latitude at which one stood (The problem of determining longitude, though, was not solved until the eighteenth century.) By the early thirteenth century. Western Europeans had also developed and put into use the magnetic compass, which helped when clouds obliterated both the Sun and the stars. Also beginning in the thirteenth century, there were new maps refined by precise calculations and the reports of sailors that made it possible to trace one's path with reasonable accuracy. Certain institutional and practical norms had become established as well. A maritime code known as the Consulate of the Sea, which originated in the western Mediterranean region in the fourteenth century, won acceptance by a majority of sea goers as the normative code for maritime conduct; it defined such matters as the authority of a ship's officers, protocols of command, pay structures, the rights of sailors, and the rules of engagement when ships met one another on the sea-lanes. Thus by about 1400 the key elements were in place to enable Europe to begin its seaward adventure.

在十四世纪,一些政治事态的发展,削弱了欧洲南亚和东亚的陆路贸易路线,而欧洲自十二世纪以来就与欧洲有着重要且高利润的商业关系。这一事态发展,就像欧洲经济陷入低谷时一样,通过建立海上贸易,推动了长期以来与东方建立直接关系的愿望。据广泛报道,如果有点不信任的话,像威尼斯着名旅行家马可波罗这样的人士说,中国人愿意与欧洲人进行贸易,而这种接触所获得的财富是无法抗拒的。贸易的可能性似乎很有希望,但是维持传统的土地路线并没有希望找到新的途径。

 

主要的问题是技术问题:欧洲人如何到达东方?欧洲的海洋传统是在易于通航的海洋 - 地中海,波罗的海以及英格兰和大陆之间的北海 - 而不是广阔的海洋的背景下形成的。需要新型的船舶,寻找新途径的新方法,以及大规模融资的新技术。在海上开始商业扩张的巨大投资反映了东西方贸易可以创造的巨大利润。香料是最抢手的商品。香料不仅极大地改善了欧洲人的饮食口味,而且还被用来制造香水和某些药物。但即使是高价的商品,如香料,也必须大量运输,以证明在非洲大陆航行到印度和中国的费用和麻烦。

 

中世纪使用的主要航海船是船上的长船,装有帆,但主要由桨驱动。最大的船只有五十多名桨手,由于船体相对较浅,驾驶帆船或在崎岖水域时不稳定,因此不适合航行到东方。即使他们拥抱非洲的海岸线,他们几乎没有幸存过印度洋的机会。 1400年后不久,造船厂开始研制一种适合在粗糙,开阔水域操作的新型船只:轻型卡车。它有比船上更宽更深的船体,因此可以携带更多的货物:增加稳定性,可以添加多个桅杆和帆。在最大的帆船上,两个主桅杆装有大型方帆,提供了推进船舶的大部分推进力,而一个较小的前桅杆则装有一个三角形的帆,称为一个后帆,可以移动到各种位置操纵船。

 

星盘长期以来一直是导航的主要工具,已于十一世纪推出。它通过测量太阳和固定恒星的高度来进行操作:通过计算这些点所产生的角度,确定了所处的纬度(直到十八世纪才确定了经度的确定问题。 )到十三世纪初。西欧人也开发并使用了磁罗盘,当太阳和星星都被云遮住时,磁罗盘就有了帮助。也是在十三世纪开始,有精确的计算和水手报告的新地图,使得有可能以合理的精度追踪自己的路径。某些制度和实践规范也已经建立起来了。在14世纪起源于西地中海地区的一个被称为“海上领事馆”的海事法典,赢得了大多数海员的接纳,成为海事行为的规范性准则;它规定了船舶管理人员的权力,指挥协议,薪酬结构,水手的权利以及船舶在海上相遇时的交战规则。因此,大约1400年的关键因素是使欧洲能够开始向海的冒险。


中文翻译

The word impetus in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • provided an impetus to a long-held desire to secure direct relations with the East by establishing A Return B Opportunity C Stimulus D Obstacle impetus
正确答案: C

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-22 15:40:36

    词汇题
    解析:impetus动力、刺激,选C

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