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草莓小菇凉:说的非常好,十分有道理,棒棒棒!

06-08 15:44:55

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TPO-12-Water in the Desert

Rainfall is not completely absent in desert areas, but it is highly variable. An annual rainfall of four inches is often used to define the limits of a desert. The impact of rainfall upon the surface water and groundwater resources of the desert is greatly influenced by landforms. Flats and depressions where water can collect are common features, but they make up only a small part of the landscape.

Arid lands, surprisingly, contain some of the world’s largest river systems, such as the Murray-Darling in Australia, the Rio Grande in North America, the Indus in Asia, and the Nile in Africa. These rivers and river systems are known as "exogenous" because their sources lie outside the arid zone. They are vital for sustaining life in some of the driest parts of the world. For centuries, the annual floods of the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates, for example, have brought fertile silts and water to the inhabitants of their lower valleys. Today, river discharges are increasingly controlled by human intervention, creating a need for international river-basin agreements. The filling of the Ataturk and other dams in Turkey has drastically reduced flows in the Euphrates, with potentially serious consequences for Syria and Iraq.

The flow of exogenous rivers varies with the season. The desert sections of long rivers respond several months after rain has fallen outside the desert, so that peak flows may be in the dry season. This is useful for irrigation, but the high temperatures, low humidities, and different day lengths of the dry season, compared to the normal growing season, can present difficulties with some crops.

Regularly flowing rivers and streams that originate within arid lands are known as "endogenous." These are generally fed by groundwater springs, and many issue from limestone massifs, such as the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Basaltic rocks also support springs, notably at the Jabal Al-Arab on the Jordan-Syria border. Endogenous rivers often do not reach the sea but drain into inland basins, where the water evaporates or is lost in the ground. Most desert streambeds are normally dry, but they occasionally receive large flows of water and sediment.

Deserts contain large amounts of groundwater when compared to the amounts they hold in surface stores such as lakes and rivers. But only a small fraction of groundwater enters the hydrological cycle—feeding the flows of streams, maintaining lake levels, and being recharged (or refilled) through surface flows and rainwater. In recent years, groundwater has become an increasingly important source of freshwater for desert dwellers. The United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank have funded attempts to survey the groundwater resources of arid lands and to develop appropriate extraction techniques. Such programs are much needed because in many arid lands there is only a vague idea of the extent of groundwater resources. It is known, however, that the distribution of groundwater is uneven, and that much of it lies at great depths.

Groundwater is stored in the pore spaces and joints of rocks and unconsolidated (unsolidified) sediments or in the openings widened through fractures and weathering. The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an "aquifer". Because they are porous, sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, are important potential sources of groundwater. Large quantities of water may also be stored in limestones when joints and cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. Most limestone and sandstone aquifers are deep and extensive but may contain   groundwaters that are not being recharged. Most shallow aquifers in sand and gravel deposits produce lower yields, but they can be rapidly recharged. Some deep aquifers are known as "fossil waters. The term "fossil" describes water that has been present for several thousand years. These aquifers became saturated more than 10,000 years ago and are no longer being recharged.

Water does not remain immobile in an aquifer but can seep out at springs or leak into other aquifers. The rate of movement may be very slow: in the Indus plain, the movement of saline (salty) groundwaters has still not reached equilibrium after 70 years of being tapped. The mineral content of groundwater normally increases with the depth, but even quite shallow aquifers can be highly saline.

降水在沙漠地区并不完全没有,但是变化很大。每年四英寸的降雨量通常被用来确定沙漠的极限。降雨对沙漠地表水和地下水资源的影响受地形的影响很大。水可收集的地方和洼地是共同的特征,但是它们仅构成景观的一小部分。

 

令人惊讶的是,干旱土地包含了世界上最大的一些河流系统,如澳大利亚的Murray-Darling,北美的Rio Grande,亚洲的Indus,非洲的Nile。这些河流和河流系统被称为“外生的”,因为它们的来源位于干旱地带之外。它们对维持世界上一些最干旱地区的生活至关重要。几个世纪以来,尼罗河,底格里斯河和幼发拉底河一年一度的洪水,给低谷的居民带来了肥沃的淤泥和水。今天,河流排放日益受到人为干预的控制,需要国际河流流域协议。土耳其阿塔图尔克和其他水坝的淹没大大减少了幼发拉底河的流量,可能给叙利亚和伊拉克造成严重后果。

 

外源河流的流量随季节而变化。长江流域的沙漠地带在雨后已经有数月的时间下降到沙漠之外,因此高峰流量可能会在旱季。这对于灌溉是有用的,但是与正常生长季节相比,旱季的高温,低湿度和不同日期长度可能给一些作物带来困难。

 

源于干旱地区的定期流动的河流和溪流被称为“内生的”。这些地下水一般由地下水泉源提供,还有许多来自石灰石地块的问题,如摩洛哥的阿特拉斯山脉。玄武岩还支持泉水,特别是在约旦 - 叙利亚边界的阿拉伯阿拉伯山脉。内生的河流通常不会到达海面,而是流入内陆盆地,在那里水分蒸发或者在地下流失。大多数沙漠河床通常是干燥的,但偶尔会有大量的水和沉积物。

 

与湖泊和河流等地表商店相比,沙漠含有大量的地下水。但是,只有一小部分地下水进入水文循环 - 补充水流,维持湖水位,并通过地表水流和雨水进行补给(或补给)。近年来,地下水已成为沙漠居民日益重要的淡水资源。联合国环境规划署和世界银行资助了对干旱地区地下水资源进行调查并开发适当的提取技术的尝试。这种方案是非常必要的,因为在许多干旱的土地上,对地下水资源的范围只有一个模糊的概念。但是,众所周知,地下水的分布是不平衡的,而且大部分在很深的地方。

 

地下水储存在岩石和松散(未固化)沉积物的孔隙和接缝中,或者通过裂缝和风化而扩大的开口中。饱含水分的岩石或沉积物被称为“含水层”。由于它们是多孔的,所以沉积岩(如砂岩和砾岩)是地下水的重要潜在来源。当接缝和裂缝扩大形成空腔时,大量的水也可以储存在石灰石中。大部分石灰岩和砂岩含水层深厚而广泛,但可能含有地下水,没有被补给。沙和砾石沉积物中的大部分浅层含水层产量较低,但可迅速补给。有些深层含水层被称为“化石水域”,“化石”一词是指已经存在数千年的水,这些含水层在1万多年前饱和了,不再被再次充填。

 

水不能在含水层中保持不动,但可以渗入泉水或渗入其他含水层。运动速度可能非常缓慢:在印度河平原,咸水(咸水)地下水运动70年后仍未达到平衡状态。地下水的矿物质含量通常会随着深度而增加,但即使是相当浅的含水层也可能是高含盐量的。


中文翻译

Which of the following statements about annual rainfall can be inferred from paragraph 1?

  • Rainfall is not completely absent in desert areas, but it is highly variable. A Flat desert areas receive more annual rainfall than desert areas with mountains. B Areas that receive more than four inches of rain per year are not considered deserts. C Many areas receive less than four inches of annual rainfall, but only a few are deserts. D Annual rainfall has no impact on the groundwater resources of desert areas.
正确答案: B

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-10 11:08:50

    推断题
    解析:根据annual rainfall定位到第2句,说4英尺的年降水量是沙漠的最大量,可以推出B(年降水量查过4英尺的地区不是沙漠)。A原文没有这个比较,C原文没有说many areas降水量大于4,D与原文相反

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