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英['lɪs(ə)n] 美['lɪsn]
vi. 听,倾听;听从,听信
n. 听,倾听

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TPO-11-Ancient Egyptian Sculpture

In order to understand ancient Egyptian art, it is vital to know as much as possible of the elite Egyptians' view of the world and the functions and contexts of the art produced for them. Without this knowledge we can appreciate only the formal content of Egyptian art, and we will fail to understand why it was produced or the concepts that shaped it and caused it to adopt its distinctive forms. In fact, a lack of understanding concerning the purposes of Egyptian art has often led it to be compared unfavorably with the art of other cultures: Why did the Egyptians not develop sculpture in which the body turned and twisted through space like classical Greek statuary? Why do the artists seem to get left and right confused? And why did they not discover the geometric perspective as European artists did in the Renaissance? The answer to such questions has nothing to do with a lack of skill or imagination on the part of Egyptian artists and everything to do with the purposes for which they were producing their art.

The majority of three-dimensional representations, whether standing, seated, or kneeling, exhibit what is called frontality: they face straight ahead, neither twisting nor turning. When such statues are viewed in isolation, out of their original context and without knowledge of their function, it is easy to criticize them for their rigid attitudes that remained unchanged for three thousand years. Frontality is, however, directly related to the functions of Egyptian statuary and the contexts in which the statues were set up. Statues were created not for their decorative effect but to play a primary role in the cults of the gods, the king, and the dead. They were designed to be put in places where these beings could manifest themselves in order to be the recipients of ritual actions. Thus it made sense to show the statue looking ahead at what was happening in front of it, so that the living performer of the ritual could interact with the divine or deceased recipient. Very often such statues were enclosed in rectangular shrines or wall niches whose only opening was at the front, making it natural for the statue to display frontality. Other statues were designed to be placed within an architectural setting, for instance, in front of the monumental entrance gateways to temples known as pylons, or in pillared courts, where they would be placed against or between pillars: their frontality worked perfectly within the architectural context.

Statues were normally made of stone, wood, or metal. Stone statues were worked from single rectangular blocks of material and retained the compactness of the original shape. The stone between the arms and the body and between the legs in standing figures or the legs and the seat in seated ones was not normally cut away. From a practical aspect this protected the figures against breakage and psychologically gives the images a sense of strength and power, usually enhanced by a supporting back pillar. By contrast, wooden statues were carved from several pieces of wood that were pegged together to form the finished work, and metal statues were either made by wrapping sheet metal around a wooden core or cast by the lost wax process. The arms could be held away from the body and carry separate items in their hands; there is no back pillar. The effect is altogether lighter and freer than that achieved in stone, but because both perform the same function, formal wooden and metal statues still display frontality.

Apart from statues representing deities, kings, and named members of the elite that can be called formal, there is another group of three-dimensional representations that depicts generic figures, frequently servants, from the nonelite population. The function of these is quite different. Many are made to be put in the tombs of the elite in order to serve the tomb owners in the afterlife. Unlike formal statues that are limited to static poses of standing, sitting, and kneeling, these figures depict a wide range of actions, such as grinding grain, baking bread, producing pots, and making music, and they are shown in appropriate poses, bending and squatting as they carry out their tasks.

为了了解古埃及艺术,必须尽可能多地了解埃及精英对世界的看法以及为他们制作的艺术的功能和背景。如果没有这方面的知识,我们只能欣赏埃及艺术的形式内容,而我们却不能理解为什么会产生埃及艺术,或者是塑造了埃及艺术的概念,并使之形成独特的形式。事实上,对埃及艺术的目的缺乏了解,往往导致它与其他文化的艺术不相上下:埃及人为什么不像古典希腊雕像那样发展身体扭转和扭曲空间的雕塑?为什么艺术家似乎左右困惑?为什么他们没有发现欧洲艺术家在文艺复兴时期的几何视角?这些问题的答案与埃及艺术家缺乏技巧或想象力以及与他们的艺术创作目的无关。

 

大多数的立体表现,无论是站立的,坐着的,还是跪着的,都展现出所谓的正面性:他们面向前方,既不扭曲,也不扭曲。当这样的雕像被孤立地看待,出于其原有的背景,不知道它们的功能时,很容易批评它们三千年来一直保持不变的僵化态度。然而,正面性与埃及雕像的功能和建立雕像的环境直接相关。造像不是为了装饰效果,而是在神,国王和死者的崇拜中起主要作用。他们的目的是为了成为仪式行动的接受者,放在这些生物可以表现自己的地方。因此,展示雕像展望前面发生的事情是有意义的,以便仪式的现场表演者可以与神圣的或已故的接受者互动。很多时候,这些雕像被封闭在矩形的神殿或墙壁壁龛中,只有前面的开放,这使得雕像显得非常自然。其他的雕像被设计成放置在一个建筑环境中,例如,在通往寺庙的巨大入口门口(称为塔架),或在有柱的法院,它们将被放置在柱子之间或柱子之间:它们的独特性在建筑物内完美地工作上下文。

 

雕像通常由石头,木头或金属制成。石像由单一的长方形材料制成,保留了原始形状的紧凑性。胳膊和身体之间的石头,站立的人物之间的腿或腿和座位之间的石头通常不会被切除。从实际的角度来看,这样可以保护人物不受破坏,并在心理上给人们一种强度和力量的感觉,通常通过一个支撑后柱来加强。相比之下,木制雕像是由几块木头雕刻而成的,这些木头被钉在一起以形成完成的作品,金属雕像或者是通过在木制核心周围包裹金属片或者通过失蜡工艺铸造而成。手臂可以远离身体,手中携带单独的物品;没有后方支柱。这种效果比石头上的效果更轻,更自由,但由于两者功能相同,正式的木制和金属雕像仍然显示出独特的地位。

 

除了可以称为正式的精英,国王和精英成员的雕像之外,还有另外一组三维表征,描绘了非精英人群中的通常的仆人。这些功能是完全不同的。许多人被安置在精英的坟墓里,为来世的坟墓所有者服务。与那些仅限于站姿,坐姿和跪姿的静态姿像不同,这些形象描绘了各种各样的动作,如磨谷物,烘烤面包,制作锅和制作音乐,并以适当的姿势展现出来并在他们执行任务时蹲下。


中文翻译

The word “vital” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • In order to understand ancient Egyptian art, it is vital to know as much as possible of the elite Egyptians' view of the world and the functions and contexts of the art produced for them.  A attractive B essential C usual D practical vital
正确答案: B

网友解析

  • 用户头像

    big1008  发表于 2018-08-27 16:04:26

    vital: 至关重要的,生死攸关的。A是有吸引力的;B是必要的;C是通常的;D是实际的,实用的。所以B的essential正确,两者都可以替换important。 对应原文 In order to understand ancient Egyptian art, it is vital to know as much as possible of the elite Egyptians' view of the world and the functions and contexts of the art produced for them.

  • 用户头像

    joannazz  发表于 2018-01-03 14:33:04

    词汇题
    解析:vital重要的,同B基本的、必要的

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