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TPO-02-Early Cinema

The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison's peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).


These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison's former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.

Although early exhibitors regularly accompanied movies with live acts, the substance of the movies themselves is mass-produced, prerecorded material that can easily be reproduced by theaters with little or no active participation by the exhibitor. Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited. What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the manipulation of the camera.

With the advent of projection, the viewer's relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid.It suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.

电影没有成为大众消费的一种形式,直到它的技术从最初的“窥视”格式演变到在黑暗的电影院屏幕上投影图像。在peepshow格式中,通过为此目的创建的机器上的小开口观看电影。托马斯·爱迪生的窥视装置电影放映厅于1894年向公众介绍。该电影放映厅设计用于电影放映厅或拱廊,只有几台独立的电影机,只允许一位顾客观看短的50英尺电影。任何一次。第一台Kinetoscope机房包含五台机器。对于25美分(或每台机器5美分)的价格,顾客从一台机器转移到另一台机器去观看五部不同的电影(或者在着名的扑灭战斗中,连续打一场)。

 

这些Kinetoscope商场仿照留声机,这在几年前已经证明对爱迪生来说是成功的。在留声机中,顾客通过独立的耳筒收听录音,从一台机器移动到另一台机器,听到不同的录音演讲或音乐片段。 Kinetoscope店的功能类似。爱迪生更感兴趣的是向这些店里出售Kinetoscopes(大约每人1000美元),而不是在他们所经营的电影中(每个电影的价格大约在10到15美元之间)。他拒绝开发投影技术,推测如果他制造和销售投影机,那么参展商只会从他那里购买一台机器,一台投影机,而不是几台。

 

然而,参展商想要最大化他们的利润,他们可以通过一次性向数百个客户投放一些电影(而不是一次一个),并以25到50美分的收费来更容易地做到这一点。在1894年第一间Kinetoscope客厅开幕大约一年后,路易斯和奥古斯特·卢米埃尔,托马斯·阿玛特和查尔斯·弗朗西斯·詹金斯,以及奥维尔和伍德维尔·莱瑟姆(在爱迪生的前助理威廉·迪克森的协助下)等演员完善了投影设备。这些早期投影设备被用于杂耍剧院,合法剧院,当地市政厅,临时店面剧院,游乐场和游乐园向大众观众展示电影。

 

随着1895 - 1896年的投影出现,电影成为大众消费的终极形式。此前,大量的观众曾在戏院观看过镜头,一次向数百名观众展示了杂耍,流行戏剧,音乐和吟游节目,古典戏剧,讲座和幻灯节目。但是这些电影与这些其他形式的娱乐有着显着的不同,这些形式的娱乐取决于现场表演或(在幻灯片展示的情况下)组装最终节目的司仪的积极参与。

 

虽然早期的参展商经常以现场表演的方式陪伴电影,但电影本身的实质是大量生产,预先录制的材料,很容易被剧院复制,参展商很少或没有积极参与。即使早期的参展商通过将电影和其他娱乐活动混合在一起,以他们认为最吸引观众的方式或通过陪同演讲来塑造他们的电影节目,但他们的创意控制仍然有限。观众们看到的是电影的技术奇迹。栩栩如生地重现火车的常见运动,波浪冲击岸边和走在街上的人;魔术摄影和相机的操纵使魔术成为可能。

 

随着投影的出现,观看者与图像的关系不再是私密的,就像早期的窥视设备,例如Kinetoscope和Mutoscope一样,它是一个类似的机器,通过在个人照相卡上的连续图像来再现运动而不是在赛璐珞条上。它突然间变成了公众 - 观众与几十人,几十人,甚至上百人分享的经验。与此同时,旁观者所看到的图像从1或2英寸(高度)的小型窥视展开到6或9英尺的实物比例。

中文翻译

According to paragraph 1, all of the following were true of viewing films in Kinetoscope parlors EXCEPT:

  • The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater.  A One individual at a time viewed a film. B Customers could view one film after another. C Prizefights were the most popular subjects for films. D Each film was short.
正确答案: C

网友解析

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    恩恩耶  发表于 2018-07-24 15:30:12

    Question 1 of 13
    正确答案:C
    题目解析:
    BC对应到最后一句,指出观众可以一部接一部地观看。B正确;文章并未指出职业拳击赛(prizefight)是最流行的,所以C错,选: For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).

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